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= 0 = 1 ?? ? ? a b a∧b = 1 a∧b = 0 ?? ? ? a b ? ? Abstract Abstract 3  The five-card trick, by Bert den Boer [Eurocrypt 89], securely computes AND using 5 cards. ?? ? ? a b a∧b = 1 a∧b = 0 Abstract 4  The five-card trick, by den Boer [Eurocrypt 89], securely computes AND using 5 cards.  This paper gives a protocol which securely computes AND using 4(More)
The transformation protocol can make two players share a secret key using a random deal of cards. A sufficient condition on the number of cards for the transformation protocol to succeed was known. However, it has been an open problem to obtain a necessary and sufficient condition. This paper improves the transformation protocol and gives a necessary and(More)
It is known that secure multi-party computations can be achieved using a number of black and red physical cards (with identical backs). In previous studies on such card-based cryptographic protocols, typically an ideal situation where all players are semi-honest and all cards of the same suit are indistinguishable from one another was assumed. In this(More)