= 0 = 1 ？？ ？ ？ a b a∧b = 1 a∧b = 0 ？？ ？ ？ a b ？ ？ Abstract Abstract 3 The five-card trick, by Bert den Boer [Eurocrypt 89], securely computes AND using 5 cards. ？？ ？ ？ a b a∧b = 1 a∧b = 0 Abstract 4 The five-card trick, by den Boer [Eurocrypt 89], securely computes AND using 5 cards. This paper gives a protocol which securely computes AND using 4… (More)
Designing a protocol to exchange a secret key is one of the most fundamental subjects in cryptography. Using a random deal of cards, pairs of card players (agents) can share information-theoretically secure keys that are secret from an eavesdropper. In this paper we first introduce the notion of an Eulerian secret key exchange, in which the pairs of players… (More)
3 There are 2 candidates and n voters. 2 candidates n voters election Abstract 4 There are 2 candidates and n voters. Usually, n ballot papers are required. 2 candidates n voters election n ballot papers Abstract 5 There are 2 candidates and n voters. Usually, n ballot papers are required. We show O(log n) cards conduct an election.
The transformation protocol can make two players share a secret key using a random deal of cards. A sufficient condition on the number of cards for the transformation protocol to succeed was known. However, it has been an open problem to obtain a necessary and sufficient condition. This paper improves the transformation protocol and gives a necessary and… (More)