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= 0 = 1 ?? ? ? a b a∧b = 1 a∧b = 0 ?? ? ? a b ? ? Abstract Abstract 3  The five-card trick, by Bert den Boer [Eurocrypt 89], securely computes AND using 5 cards. ?? ? ? a b a∧b = 1 a∧b = 0 Abstract 4  The five-card trick, by den Boer [Eurocrypt 89], securely computes AND using 5 cards.  This paper gives a protocol which securely computes AND using 4(More)
The transformation protocol can make two players share a secret key using a random deal of cards. A sufficient condition on the number of cards for the transformation protocol to succeed was known. However, it has been an open problem to obtain a necessary and sufficient condition. This paper improves the transformation protocol and gives a necessary and(More)
It is known that secure multi-party computations can be achieved using a number of black and red physical cards (with identical backs). In previous studies on such card-based cryptographic protocols, typically an ideal situation where all players are semi-honest and all cards of the same suit are indistinguishable from one another was assumed. In this(More)
Consider a face-down card lying on the table such that we do not know whether its suit color is black or red. Then, how do we make identical copies of the card while keeping its color secret? A partial solution has been devised: using a number of additional black and red cards, Niemi and Renvall proposed an excellent protocol which can copy a face-down card(More)