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There are two distinct subtypes of multiple sclerosis in Asians, opticospinal (OS-multiple sclerosis) and conventional (C-multiple sclerosis). In OS-multiple sclerosis, selective and severe involvement of the optic nerves and spinal cord is characteristic, though its mechanisms are unknown. The present study aimed to find out possible differences in the(More)
To investigate cytokine/chemokine changes in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), we simultaneously measured 16 cytokine/chemokines (interleukin [IL]-1beta, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12 [p70], IL-13, IL-17, interferon-gamma, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, granulocyte colony stimulating factor [G-CSF], macrophage chemoattractant protein-1(More)
We studied the role of fasudil, a selective Rho-kinase inhibitor, in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Both parenteral and oral administration of fasudil prevented the development of EAE induced by proteolipid protein (PLP) p139-151 in SJL/J mice. Specific proliferation of lymphocytes to PLP was significantly reduced, together with a(More)
Persistent Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a chronic inflammatory stimulus to hosts with an inverse correlation to atopic disorders. In this study, a total of 105 consecutive multiple sclerosis (MS) patients were divided into 52 opticospinal MS (OSMS) and 53 conventional MS (CMS), and their sera, along with those from 85 healthy controls (HC),(More)
Opticospinal multiple sclerosis (OSMS) in Asians has similar features to the relapsing-remitting form of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) seen in Westerners. OSMS is suggested to be NMO based on the frequent detection of specific IgG targeting aquaporin-4 (AQP4), designated NMO-IgG. The present study sought to clarify the significance of anti-AQP4 autoimmunity in(More)
Vascular permeability changes precede the development of demyelinating lesions in multiple sclerosis (MS), and vessel wall thickening and capillary proliferation are frequently seen in autopsied MS lesions. Although vascular growth factors are critical for inducing such vascular changes, their involvement in MS has not been extensively studied. Thus, we(More)
To address the immune mechanism of the long-term beneficial effects of interferon beta (IFN-beta), we measured the intracellular cytokine production patterns of IFN-gamma, IL-4 and IL-13 in peripheral blood CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, which previously displayed alterations during the early course of IFN-beta treatment, in 15 Japanese patients after long-term(More)
OBJECTIVE Using neuroimaging, we analyzed the nature of extensive brain lesions in five anti-aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibody-positive patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders. RESULTS Extensive brain lesions involved white matter in three, and basal ganglia and corpus callosum in one each. Four patients showed high diffusivity on apparent(More)
We report a 77-year-old woman with restless legs syndrome(RLS) and periodic limb movement(PLM). From 62 years of age, she was awakened by tingling and involuntary movement in her legs during sleep. There symptoms disappeared when she stood up and walked. She was treated with clonazepam (2.5 mg/day) and valproate (400 mg/day) at 77 years of age, and the(More)
We simultaneously measured 16 cytokines/chemokines in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from 14 patients with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) and 20 controls using a fluorescent bead-based immunoassay. A variety of cytokines, such as IL-1beta, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, G-CSF and MIP-1beta, were significantly elevated in(More)