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In adult mammalian brain, occurrence of the synthesis of estradiol from endogenous cholesterol has been doubted because of the inability to detect dehydroepiandrosterone synthase, P45017alpha. In adult male rat hippocampal formation, significant localization was demonstrated for both cytochromes P45017alpha and P450 aromatase, in pyramidal neurons in the(More)
Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) can develop mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI), frequently progressing to dementia (PDD). Here, we aimed to elucidate the relationship between white matter alteration and cognitive status in PD and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) by using diffusion tensor imaging. We also compared the progression patterns of white and(More)
PURPOSE Regulatory CD4+ T cells (T regs) arise in the spleens of mice with anterior chamber-associated immune deviation (ACAID), an eye-derived tolerance evoked by injection of antigen into the ocular anterior chamber (AC). The current study was conducted to investigate the possibility that these T regs express CD25 and are derived from natural CD4+CD25+ T(More)
Hippocampal pyramidal neurons and granule neurons of adult male rats are equipped with a complete machinery for the synthesis of pregnenolone, dehydroepiandrosterone, 17beta-estradiol and testosterone as well as their sulfate esters. These brain neurosteroids are synthesized by cytochrome P450s (P450scc, P45017alpha and P450arom) from endogenous(More)
This work reports the first demonstration that corticosterone (CORT) has a rapid and transient effect on NMDA receptor-mediated Ca2+ signaling in cultured rat hippocampal neurons. Using single cell Ca2+ imaging, CORT and agonists of glucocorticoid receptors were observed to modulate the NMDA receptor-mediated Ca2+ signals in a completely different fashion(More)
Horseradish peroxidase injected into the rat globus pallidus was transported retrogradely to subthalamic nucleus neuronal cell bodies and anterogradely to axon terminals in the subthalamic nucleus. Electron microscopic observations revealed that the labeled axon terminals made symmetrical axosomatic and axo-dendritic synaptic contacts with labeled(More)
PURPOSE Neurotrophic keratopathy (NK) is a corneal degeneration associated with corneal nerve dysfunction. It can cause corneal epithelial defects, stromal thinning, and perforation. However, it is not clear if and to which extent epithelial stem cells are affected in NK. The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between corneolimbal(More)
Purpose. To investigate the corneal expression of toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 and determine its contribution to the immunopathogenesis of dry eye disease (DED). Methods. Seven to 8-week-old female C57BL/6 mice were housed in a controlled environment chamber and administered scopolamine to induce experimental DED. Mice received intravenous TLR4 inhibitor(More)