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The 'ataxia telangiectasia mutated' (Atm) gene maintains genomic stability by activating a key cell-cycle checkpoint in response to DNA damage, telomeric instability or oxidative stress. Mutational inactivation of the gene causes an autosomal recessive disorder, ataxia-telangiectasia, characterized by immunodeficiency, progressive cerebellar ataxia,(More)
PTEN is a tumor suppressor with sequence homology to protein tyrosine phosphatases and the cytoskeletal protein tensin. mPTEN-mutant mouse embryos display regions of increased proliferation. In contrast, mPTEN-deficient immortalized mouse embryonic fibroblasts exhibit decreased sensitivity to cell death in response to a number of apoptotic stimuli,(More)
Mutations of the DJ-1 (PARK7) gene are linked to familial Parkinson's disease. We used gene targeting to generate DJ-1-deficient mice that were viable, fertile, and showed no gross anatomical or neuronal abnormalities. Dopaminergic neuron numbers in the substantia nigra and fiber densities and dopamine levels in the striatum were normal. However, DJ-1-/-(More)
FADD (also known as Mort-1) is a signal transducer downstream of cell death receptor CD95 (also called Fas). CD95, tumor necrosis factor receptor type 1 (TNFR-1), and death receptor 3 (DR3) did not induce apoptosis in FADD-deficient embryonic fibroblasts, whereas DR4, oncogenes E1A and c-myc, and chemotherapeutic agent adriamycin did. Mice with a deletion(More)
The Notch pathway functions in multiple cell fate determination processes in invertebrate embryos, including the decision between the neuroblast and epidermoblast lineages in Drosophila. In the mouse, targeted mutation of the Notch pathway genes Notch1 and RBP-Jk has demonstrated a role for these genes in somite segmentation, but a function in neurogenesis(More)
The tumour-necrosis-factor-family molecule osteoprotegerin ligand (OPGL; also known as TRANCE, RANKL and ODF) has been identified as a potential osteoclast differentiation factor and regulator of interactions between T cells and dendritic cells in vitro. Mice with a disrupted opgl gene show severe osteopetrosis and a defect in tooth eruption, and completely(More)
Little is known about how neural stem cells are formed initially during development. We investigated whether a default mechanism of neural specification could regulate acquisition of neural stem cell identity directly from embryonic stem (ES) cells. ES cells cultured in defined, low-density conditions readily acquire a neural identity. We characterize a(More)
This report shows that cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) plays a key role in T cell-mediated dominant immunologic self-tolerance. In vivo blockade of CTLA-4 for a limited period in normal mice leads to spontaneous development of chronic organ-specific autoimmune diseases, which are immunopathologically similar to human counterparts. In(More)
Apaf-1(-/-) or caspase-3(-/-) cells treated with a variety of apoptosis inducers manifest apoptosis-associated alterations including the translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) from mitochondria to nuclei, large scale DNA fragmentation, and initial chromatin condensation (stage I). However, when compared with normal control cells, Apaf-1(-/-) or(More)
the past 25 years, the oncogene revolution has stimulated research, revealing that the crucial phenotypes that are characteristic of tumour cells result from a host of mutational events that combine to alter multiple signalling pathways. Moreover, high-throughput sequencing data suggest that the mutations leading to tumorigenesis are even more numerous and(More)