Learn More
Signaling by RANKL is essential for terminal differentiation of monocytes/macrophages into osteoclasts. The TRAF6 and c-Fos signaling pathways both play important roles downstream of RANKL. We show here that RANKL selectively induces NFATc1 expression via these two pathways. RANKL also evokes Ca(2+) oscillations that lead to calcineurin-mediated activation(More)
Interest in the topic of tumour metabolism has waxed and waned over the past century of cancer research. The early observations of Warburg and his contemporaries established that there are fundamental differences in the central metabolic pathways operating in malignant tissue. However, the initial hypotheses that were based on these observations proved(More)
PTEN is a tumor suppressor with sequence homology to protein tyrosine phosphatases and the cytoskeletal protein tensin. mPTEN-mutant mouse embryos display regions of increased proliferation. In contrast, mPTEN-deficient immortalized mouse embryonic fibroblasts exhibit decreased sensitivity to cell death in response to a number of apoptotic stimuli,(More)
The 'ataxia telangiectasia mutated' (Atm) gene maintains genomic stability by activating a key cell-cycle checkpoint in response to DNA damage, telomeric instability or oxidative stress. Mutational inactivation of the gene causes an autosomal recessive disorder, ataxia-telangiectasia, characterized by immunodeficiency, progressive cerebellar ataxia,(More)
The tumour-necrosis-factor-family molecule osteoprotegerin ligand (OPGL; also known as TRANCE, RANKL and ODF) has been identified as a potential osteoclast differentiation factor and regulator of interactions between T cells and dendritic cells in vitro. Mice with a disrupted opgl gene show severe osteopetrosis and a defect in tooth eruption, and completely(More)
This report shows that cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) plays a key role in T cell-mediated dominant immunologic self-tolerance. In vivo blockade of CTLA-4 for a limited period in normal mice leads to spontaneous development of chronic organ-specific autoimmune diseases, which are immunopathologically similar to human counterparts. In(More)
The regulation of oxidative stress is an important factor in both tumour development and responses to anticancer therapies. Many signalling pathways that are linked to tumorigenesis can also regulate the metabolism of reactive oxygen species (ROS) through direct or indirect mechanisms. High ROS levels are generally detrimental to cells, and the redox status(More)
The activation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) is central to innate and adaptive immunity. All TLRs use the adaptor MyD88 for signalling, but the mechanisms underlying the MyD88-mediated gene induction programme are as yet not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that the transcription factor IRF-5 is generally involved downstream of the TLR-MyD88(More)
Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) regulate fundamental cellular responses such as proliferation, apoptosis, cell motility, and adhesion. Viable gene-targeted mice lacking the p110 catalytic subunit of PI3Kgamma were generated. We show that PI3Kgamma controls thymocyte survival and activation of mature T cells but has no role in the development or function(More)
Interferon-regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) is essential for the development of T helper type 2 cells. Here we show that IRF4 is also critical for the generation of interleukin 17-producing T helper cells (T(H)-17 cells), which are associated with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. IRF4-deficient (Irf4(-/-)) mice did not develop experimental autoimmune(More)