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One of the characteristics of the central nervous system is the lack of a classical lymphatic drainage system. Although it is now accepted that the central nervous system undergoes constant immune surveillance that takes place within the meningeal compartment, the mechanisms governing the entrance and exit of immune cells from the central nervous system(More)
Toxoplasma gondii, an intracellular protozoan parasite, is a major cause of opportunistic infectious disease affecting the brain and has been linked to an increased incidence of schizophrenia. In murine hosts, infection with T. gondii stimulates tryptophan degradation along the kynurenine pathway (KP), which contains several neuroactive metabolites,(More)
Chemokines have a central role in regulating processes essential to the immune function of T cells, such as their migration within lymphoid tissues and targeting of pathogens in sites of inflammation. Here we track T cells using multi-photon microscopy to demonstrate that the chemokine CXCL10 enhances the ability of CD8+ T cells to control the pathogen(More)
OBJECTIVE Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a devastating stroke subtype in which perihematomal inflammation contributes to neuronal injury and functional disability. Histologically, the region becomes infiltrated with neutrophils and activated microglia followed by neuronal loss, but little is known about the immune signals that coordinate these events.(More)
Inflammation contributes to secondary injury and neuronal loss after intracerebral hemorrhage, but the role of individual immune populations in these processes is unclear. In a mouse model, the injection of autologous blood into the striatum was associated with an intense inflammatory cell infiltrate composed of neutrophils, monocytes, and dendritic cells.(More)
Users may view, print, copy, and download text and data-mine the content in such documents, for the purposes of academic research, subject always to the full Conditions of use: Author Contributions A.L performed most of the experiments, analyzed the data, and contributed to experimental design and manuscript writing. I.S. performed all the surgeries and(More)
To better understand the initiation of CD8(+) T cell responses during infection, the primary response to the intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii was characterized using 2-photon microscopy combined with an experimental system that allowed visualization of dendritic cells (DCs) and parasite specific CD8(+) T cells. Infection with T. gondii induced(More)
Under normal conditions the immune system has limited access to the brain; however, during toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE), large numbers of T cells and APCs accumulate within this site. A combination of real time imaging, transgenic reporter mice, and recombinant parasites allowed a comprehensive analysis of CD11c+ cells during TE. These studies reveal that(More)
Vitiligo is an autoimmune disease of the skin causing disfiguring patchy depigmentation of the epidermis and, less commonly, hair. Therapeutic options for vitiligo are limited, reflecting in part limited knowledge of disease pathogenesis. Existing mouse models of vitiligo consist of hair depigmentation but lack prominent epidermal involvement, which is the(More)
PURPOSE Toxoplasma gondii is a major cause of ocular disease, which can lead to permanent vision loss in humans. T cells are critically involved in parasite control, but little is known about the molecules that promote T-cell trafficking and migration in the retina. Thus, the aim of this study was to image and dissect the T-cell response during chronic(More)