Learn More
Interleukin 10 (IL-10) has a prominent function in regulating the balance between protective and pathological T cell responses. Consistent with that activity, many sources of this cytokine are found in vivo, including from myeloid cells and a variety of T cell subsets. However, although there are many pathways that regulate innate production of IL-10, the(More)
OBJECTIVE Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a devastating stroke subtype in which perihematomal inflammation contributes to neuronal injury and functional disability. Histologically, the region becomes infiltrated with neutrophils and activated microglia followed by neuronal loss, but little is known about the immune signals that coordinate these events.(More)
One of the characteristics of the central nervous system is the lack of a classical lymphatic drainage system. Although it is now accepted that the central nervous system undergoes constant immune surveillance that takes place within the meningeal compartment, the mechanisms governing the entrance and exit of immune cells from the central nervous system(More)
To understand lymphocyte behavior in the brain, we used two-photon microscopy to visualize effector CD8(+) T cells during toxoplasmic encephalitis. These cells displayed multiple behaviors with two distinct populations of cells apparent: one with a constrained pattern of migration and one with a highly migratory subset. The proportion of these populations(More)
Chemokines have a central role in regulating processes essential to the immune function of T cells, such as their migration within lymphoid tissues and targeting of pathogens in sites of inflammation. Here we track T cells using multi-photon microscopy to demonstrate that the chemokine CXCL10 enhances the ability of CD8+ T cells to control the pathogen(More)
Toxoplasma gondii, an intracellular protozoan parasite, is a major cause of opportunistic infectious disease affecting the brain and has been linked to an increased incidence of schizophrenia. In murine hosts, infection with T. gondii stimulates tryptophan degradation along the kynurenine pathway (KP), which contains several neuroactive metabolites,(More)
Inflammation contributes to secondary injury and neuronal loss after intracerebral hemorrhage, but the role of individual immune populations in these processes is unclear. In a mouse model, the injection of autologous blood into the striatum was associated with an intense inflammatory cell infiltrate composed of neutrophils, monocytes, and dendritic cells.(More)
Vitiligo is an autoimmune disease of the skin that results in disfiguring white spots. There are no U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved treatments for vitiligo, and most off-label treatments yield unsatisfactory results. Vitiligo patients have increased numbers of autoreactive, melanocyte-specific CD8(+) T cells in the skin and blood, which are(More)
Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) promotes a population of T-bet(+) CXCR3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells that limit T helper 1 (Th1) cell-mediated pathology. Our studies demonstrate that interleukin-27 (IL-27) also promoted expression of T-bet and CXCR3 in Treg cells. During infection with Toxoplasma gondii, a similar population emerged that limited T cell responses and(More)
Vitiligo is an autoimmune disease of the skin causing disfiguring patchy depigmentation of the epidermis and, less commonly, hair. Therapeutic options for vitiligo are limited, reflecting in part limited knowledge of disease pathogenesis. Existing mouse models of vitiligo consist of hair depigmentation but lack prominent epidermal involvement, which is the(More)