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Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology is characterized by plaques, tangles, and neuronal cell loss. The main constituent of plaques is beta-amyloid peptide (A beta), a 39-42 residue peptide which has been linked to disruption of calcium homeostasis and neurotoxicity in vitro. We demonstrate that a neurotoxic fragment of A beta, A beta (25-35) spontaneously(More)
Prions cause neurodegenerative disease in animals and humans. Recently it was shown that a 21-residue fragment of the prion protein (106-126) could be toxic to cultured neurons. We report here that this peptide forms ion-permeable channels in planar lipid bilayer membranes. These channels are freely permeable to common physiological ions, and their(More)
Amylin is a 37-amino acid cytotoxic constituent of amyloid deposits found in the islets of Langerhans of patients with type II diabetes. Extracellular accumulation of this peptide results in damage to insulin-producing beta cell membranes and cell death. We report here that at cytotoxic concentrations, amylin forms voltage-dependent, relatively(More)
Chemokine receptors and related seven-transmembrane-segment (7TMS) receptors serve as coreceptors for entry of human and simian immunodeficiency viruses (HIV-1, HIV-2, and SIV) into target cells. Each of these otherwise diverse coreceptors contains an N-terminal region that is acidic and tyrosine rich. Here, we show that the chemokine receptor CCR5, a(More)
Protegrins are small, arginine- and cysteine-rich, beta-sheet peptides with potent activity against bacteria, fungi, and certain enveloped viruses. We report that protegrins form weakly anion-selective channels in planar phospholipid bilayers, induce potassium leakage from liposomes and form moderately cation-selective channels in planar lipid membranes(More)
Alzheimer's disease is characterized by deposition of beta-amyloid peptide (Abeta) into plaques in the brain, leading to neuronal toxicity and dementia. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection of the central nervous system can also cause a dementia, and amyloid deposition in the central nervous system is significantly higher in HIV-1-infected(More)
The chemokine receptor CXCR4 plays critical roles in development, immune function, and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) entry. Here we demonstrate that, like the CC-chemokine receptors CCR5 and CCR2b, CXCR4 is posttranslationally modified by sulfation of its amino-terminal tyrosines. The sulfate group at tyrosine 21 contributes substantially to(More)
Seven-transmembrane segment, G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) play important roles in many biological processes in which pharmaceutical intervention may be useful. High level expression and native purification of GPCRs are important steps in the biochemical and structural characterization of these molecules. Here, we describe enhanced mammalian cell(More)
The effects of pH on the integral conductance and on the properties of single channels induced by porin from rat liver mitochondria in a lipid bilayer have been studied. When the membrane potential increases, the conductance of the multi-channel membrane decreases more sharply at acidic pH than at neutral or basic pH. The channel is shown to have several(More)
Detergent-free rat brain outer mitochondrial membranes were incorporated in planar lipid bilayers in the presence of an osmotic gradient, and studied at high (1 m KCl) and low (150 mm KCl) ionic strength solutions. By comparison, the main outer mitochondrial membrane protein, VDAC, extracted from rat liver with Triton X-100, was also studied in 150 mm KCl.(More)