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BACKGROUND The combination of complete diaphragm inactivity and mechanical ventilation (for more than 18 hours) elicits disuse atrophy of myofibers in animals. We hypothesized that the same may also occur in the human diaphragm. METHODS We obtained biopsy specimens from the costal diaphragms of 14 brain-dead organ donors before organ harvest (case(More)
RATIONALE Patients on mechanical ventilation who exhibit diaphragm inactivity for a prolonged time (case subjects) develop decreases in diaphragm force-generating capacity accompanied by diaphragm myofiber atrophy. OBJECTIVES Our objectives were to test the hypotheses that increased proteolysis by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, decreases in myosin(More)
To assess the effect of severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) on the ability of human diaphragmatic myofibers to aerobically generate ATP relative to ATP utilization, we obtained biopsy specimens of the costal diaphragm from seven patients with severe COPD (mean +/- SE; age 56 +/- 1 yr; forced expiratory volume in 1 s 23 +/- 2% predicted;(More)
Diaphragm remodeling associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) consists of a fast-to-slow fiber type transformation as well as adaptations within each fiber type. To try to explain disparate findings in the literature regarding the relationship between fiber type proportions and FEV1, we obtained costal diaphragm biopsies on 40 subjects(More)
Studies in experimental animals indicate that chronic increases in neural drive to limb muscles elicit a fast-to-slow transformation of fiber-type proportions and myofibrillar proteins. Since neural drive to the parasternal intercostal muscles (parasternals) is chronically increased in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPDs), we(More)
Since the finding that the mdx mouse diaphragm, in contrast to limb muscles, undergoes progressive degeneration analogous to that seen in Duchenne muscular dystrophy, the relationship between the workload on a muscle and the pathogenesis of dystrophy has remained controversial. We increased the work performed by the mdx mouse diaphragm in vivo by tracheal(More)
We have previously demonstrated that human diaphragm remodeling elicited by severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by a fast-to-slow myosin heavy chain isoform transformation. To test the hypothesis that COPD-induced diaphragm remodeling also elicits a fast-to-slow isoform shift in the sarcoendoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase(More)
BACKGROUND Several physiological adaptations occur in the respiratory muscles in rodent models of elastase-induced emphysema. Although the contractile properties of the diaphragm are altered in a way that suggests expression of slower isoforms of myosin heavy chain (MHC), it has been difficult to demonstrate a shift in MHCs in an animal model that(More)
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