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TGF-beta signals from the membrane to the nucleus through serine/threonine kinase receptors and their downstream effectors, termed SMAD proteins. The activated TGF-beta receptor induces phosphorylation of two such proteins, Smad2 and Smad3, which form hetero-oligomeric complex(es) with Smad4/DPC4 that translocate to the nucleus, where they then regulate(More)
The family of TGF-beta signalling molecules play inductive roles in various developmental contexts. One member of this family, Drosophila Decapentaplegic (Dpp) serves as a morphogen that patterns both the embryo and adult. We have now isolated a gene, Daughters against dpp (Dad), whose transcription is induced by Dpp. Dad shares weak homology with(More)
Thymic selection of the developing T-cell repertoire occurs in immature CD4+CD8+ double-positive thymocytes and is thought to be mediated by signals transduced by T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) molecules and possibly by CD4 and CD8 accessory molecules as well. It is not known, however, which signal-transduction mechanisms function in immature CD4+CD8+(More)
Expression of the multicomponent T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) complex on the surface of thymocytes is developmentally controlled. Most immature CD4-CD8- 'double negative' and CD4+CD8+ 'double positive' thymocytes express either no or few TCR on their surface, and maturation to CD4+CD8- or CD4-CD8+ 'single positive' thymocytes is accompanied by a dramatic(More)
Surrogate markers for the Alzheimer disease (AD)-associated 42-amino acid form of amyloid-beta (Abeta42) have been sought because they may aid in the diagnosis of AD and for clarification of disease pathogenesis. Here, we demonstrate that human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) contains three APLP1-derived Abeta-like peptides (APL1beta) that are generated by beta-(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS Following extracellular shedding, transmembrane domains (TMs) of beta-amyloid precursor protein (betaAPP) and Notch-1 undergo proteolysis by presenilin (PS)/gamma-secretase at least at two sites, near the middle of the TM (gamma-/S4 cleavage) and at the interface between cytosol and the TM (epsilon-/S3 cleavage), releasing Alzheimer disease(More)
Most immature CD4+CD8+ thymocytes express only a small number of T cell receptor (TCR) molecules on their surface, and the TCR molecules they do express are only marginally capable of transducing intracellular signals. TCR expression and function was not intrinsically low in immature CD4+CD8+ thymocytes, but was found to be actively inhibited by(More)
Deciphering the mechanism by which the relative Aβ42(43) to total Aβ ratio is regulated is central to understanding Alzheimer disease (AD) etiology; however, the mechanisms underlying changes in the Aβ42(43) ratio caused by familial mutations and γ-secretase modulators (GSMs) are unclear. Here, we show in vitro and in living cells that presenilin(More)
The structure and function of transcription factors of higher plants was studied by isolating cDNA clones encoding a wheat sequence-specific DNA binding protein. A hexameric nucleotide motif, ACGTCA, is located upstream from the TATA box of several plant histone genes. It has been suggested that this motif is essential for efficient transcription of the(More)