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Effects of two stretching methods on shoulder range of motion and muscle stiffness in baseball players with posterior shoulder tightness: a randomized controlled trial.
TLDR
The modified cross-body stretch and modified sleeper stretch are effective for increasing shoulder internal rotation and horizontal adduction ROM and decreasing muscle stiffness of the infraspinatus or teres minor.
The effect of trunk rotation during shoulder exercises on the activity of the scapular muscle and scapular kinematics.
TLDR
The findings suggest that shoulder exercises with trunk rotation in this study may be effective in patients who have difficulty in enhancing LT activity and suppressing excessive activation of the UT or in cases in which a decreased scapular external rotation or posterior tilt is observed.
Effects of the trunk position on muscle stiffness that reflects elongation of the lumbar erector spinae and multifidus muscles: an ultrasonic shear wave elastography study
TLDR
The results of the present study suggest that the lumbar erector spinae muscle is stretched effectively in the position adding trunk contralateral lateral flexion to flexion and the shear elastic modulus was significantly higher than that in the Rest, Flexion, or Flexion-Rotation 1 positions.
Electrical Stimulation to the Infraspinatus on Hypertrophy and Strength of the Shoulder.
TLDR
It was demonstrated that EMS of the infraspinatus muscle over a period of six weeks resulted in hypertrophy of the Infrasp inatus muscle.
Title Effects of two stretching methods on shoulder range of motion and muscle stiffness in baseball players with posterior shoulder tightness : a randomized controlled trial
36 Background: The cross-body stretch and sleeper stretch are widely used for improving 37 flexibility of the posterior shoulder. These stretching methods were modified by Wilk. 38 However, few