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Novel high-throughput sequencing methods outperform earlier approaches in terms of resolution and magnitude. They enable identification and relative quantification of community members and offer new insights into fungal community ecology. These methods are currently taking over as the primary tool to assess fungal communities of plant-associated endophytes,(More)
A greenhouse experiment was used to study the effects of host genotype on short root formation and ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal community structure in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.). Rooted cuttings representing 55 clones were inoculated with a mix of vegetative hyphae of five ECM fungal species (Laccaria sp., Amphinema byssoides, Piloderma sp.,(More)
Traditionally cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) is cultivated under legume shade trees, which produce N-rich litter that improves soil organic matter content, microbial activity, and recycles N to the crop. Arbuscular mycorrhiza forming fungi (AMF) are known to play an important role in plant nutrient uptake, yet their role in plant N uptake from organic residues(More)
Tricholoma matsutake is an economically important ectomycorrhizal fungus of coniferous woodlands. Mycologists suspect that this fungus is also capable of saprotrophic feeding. In order to evaluate this hypothesis, enzyme and chemical assays were performed in the field and laboratory. From a natural population of T. matsutake in southern Finland, samples of(More)
Hundreds of wood-inhabiting fungal species are now threatened, principally due to a lack of dead wood in intensively managed forests, but the consequences of reduced fungal diversity on ecosystem functioning are not known. Several experiments have shown that primary productivity is negatively affected by a loss of species, but the effects of microbial(More)
Application of a high-performance liquid chromatography-based muramic acid assay with precolumn fluorescence derivatization to quantification of root-associated bacteria was studied both in pure cultures and in the rhizosphere of axenic Festuca rubra seedlings. Quantities of muramic acid from acid-hydrolyzed cells of Frankia strains, Streptomyces(More)
While high-throughput sequencing methods are revolutionizing fungal ecology, recovering accurate estimates of species richness and abundance has proven elusive. We sought to design internal transcribed spacer (ITS) primers and an Illumina protocol that would maximize coverage of the kingdom Fungi while minimizing nontarget eukaryotes. We inspected(More)
Tricholoma matsutake, a highly valued delicacy in Japan and East Asia, is an ectomycorrhizal fungus typically found in a complex soil community of mycorrhizae, soil microbes, and host-tree roots referred to as the shiro in Japan. A curious characteristic of the shiro is an assortment of small rock fragments that have been implicated as a direct source of(More)
We studied long-term effects of fertilization with wood ash on biomass, vitality and mycorrhizal colonization of fine roots in three conifer forest stands growing in Vacciniosa turf. mel. (V), Myrtillosa turf. mel. (M) and Myrtillosa turf. mel./Caricoso-phragmitosa (MC) forest types on peat soils. Fertilization trials amounting 5 kg/m2 of wood ash were(More)
We studied whether the induction of defence against foliar pathogens affects the interaction of Norway spruce (Picea abies) with ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF) and whether the response differs between seedlings originating from families showing variable growth performance in long-term trials. The shoots were inoculated with Botrytis cinerea and Gibberella(More)