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Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can be used for non-invasive assessment of cortical physiology and descending motor pathways. However, the focus/exact site of cortical activation is considerably widespread in traditional TMS. When combined with MRI-based navigation, it allows specific anatomical areas of the cortex to be stimulated. The peripheral(More)
Patients with Unverricht-Lundborg disease, also referred to as progressive myoclonus epilepsy type 1, exhibit widespread motor symptoms and signs in addition to epileptic seizures, which suggest abnormal excitability of the primary motor pathways. To explore the plasticity of the sensory-motor cortex, we employed a modern neurophysiological method, the(More)
OBJECTIVE We aimed at comparing the effects of two different electrode-to-skin contact preparation techniques on the stimulus artefact induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in electroencephalography (EEG) signals. METHODS Six healthy subjects participated in a combined navigated brain stimulation (NBS) and EEG study. Electrode contacts were(More)
INTRODUCTION Presently, the severity of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is estimated based on the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). Unfortunately, AHI does not provide information on the severity of individual obstruction events. Previously, the severity of individual obstruction events has been suggested to be related to the outcome of the disease. In this study,(More)
When linking in time electrical stimulation of the peripheral nerve with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), the excitability of the motor cortex can be modulated to evoke clear inhibition, as reflected by the amplitude decrement in the motor-evoked potentials (MEPs). This specific property, designated short-latency afferent inhibition (SAI), occurs(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether a second-scale intertrial interval (ITI) of single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) affects the measured amplitude of motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) representing individual corticospinal excitability. This was performed to challenge the common assumption of time invariance of such amplitudes. METHODS Navigated(More)
OBJECTIVE To characterize the behaviour of primary motor cortex and to determine appropriate measurement parameters for short-interval cortical inhibition (SICI) and intracortical facilitation (ICF) by paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with the aid of MRI-based neuronavigation. METHODS Paired-pulse TMS was targeted to the optimal(More)
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the superior frontal gyrus in the non-primary motor area (NPMA) can evoke motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) at 20 ms latency range in contralateral distal hand muscles similar to stimulation of M1 and indicating monosynaptic corticospinal tracts. We compared the intracortical inhibitory and excitatory balance in(More)
INTRODUCTION Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been associated with an elevated rate of cardiovascular mortality. However, this issue has not been investigated in patients with elevated proneness to cardiovascular diseases. Our hypothesis was that OSA would have an especially adverse effect on the risk of cardiovascular mortality in Finnish individuals(More)
Navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a tool for targeted, noninvasive stimulation of cerebral cortex. Transcranial stimuli can depolarize neurons and evoke measurable effects which are unique in two ways: the effects are caused directly and without a consciousness of the subject, and, the responses from peripheral muscles provide a direct(More)