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When linking in time electrical stimulation of the peripheral nerve with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), the excitability of the motor cortex can be modulated to evoke clear inhibition, as reflected by the amplitude decrement in the motor-evoked potentials (MEPs). This specific property, designated short-latency afferent inhibition (SAI), occurs(More)
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can be used for non-invasive assessment of cortical physiology and descending motor pathways. However, the focus/exact site of cortical activation is considerably widespread in traditional TMS. When combined with MRI-based navigation, it allows specific anatomical areas of the cortex to be stimulated. The peripheral(More)
Navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a tool for targeted, noninvasive stimulation of cerebral cortex. Transcranial stimuli can depolarize neurons and evoke measurable effects which are unique in two ways: the effects are caused directly and without a consciousness of the subject, and, the responses from peripheral muscles provide a direct(More)
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the superior frontal gyrus in the non-primary motor area (NPMA) can evoke motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) at 20 ms latency range in contralateral distal hand muscles similar to stimulation of M1 and indicating monosynaptic corticospinal tracts. We compared the intracortical inhibitory and excitatory balance in(More)
The use of emergency electroencephalography (EEG) in clinical practice is limited in part due to the lack of commercially available EEG monitoring sets that are suitable for rapid and simple use. The aim of this study was to develop a rapid and simple-to-use disposable forehead EEG electrode set for routine use that is also suitable for long-term(More)
Although electroencephalography (EEG) is an important diagnostic tool for investigating patients with unexplained altered mental state (AMS), recording of emergency EEG is not a clinical routine. This is mainly due to the cumbersome electrode solutions. A Handy EEG Electrode Set consists of ten EEG, two EOG, two ground and two commutative reference(More)
There is a growing need for an easy to use screening tool for the assessment of brain's electrical function in patients with altered mental status (AMS). The purpose of this study is to give a brief overview of the state-of-the-art in electrode technology, and to present a novel sub-hairline electrode set developed in our research group. Screen-printing(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether a second-scale intertrial interval (ITI) of single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) affects the measured amplitude of motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) representing individual corticospinal excitability. This was performed to challenge the common assumption of time invariance of such amplitudes. METHODS Navigated(More)
Patients with Unverricht-Lundborg disease, also referred to as progressive myoclonus epilepsy type 1, exhibit widespread motor symptoms and signs in addition to epileptic seizures, which suggest abnormal excitability of the primary motor pathways. To explore the plasticity of the sensory-motor cortex, we employed a modern neurophysiological method, the(More)
OBJECTIVE To characterize the behaviour of primary motor cortex and to determine appropriate measurement parameters for short-interval cortical inhibition (SICI) and intracortical facilitation (ICF) by paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with the aid of MRI-based neuronavigation. METHODS Paired-pulse TMS was targeted to the optimal(More)