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Refinement algebra provides axioms for the stepwise removal of abstraction, in the form of demonic nondeterminism, in a first-order system that supports reasoning about loops. It has been extended by Solin and Meinecke to computations involving implicit probabilistic choices: demonic nondeterminism then satisfies weaker properties. In this paper their axiom(More)
Hidden Markov Models, HMM's, are mathematical models of Markov processes whose state is hidden but from which information can leak via channels. They are typically represented as 3-way joint probability distributions. We use HMM's as denotations of probabilistic hidden-state sequential programs, after recasting them as “abstract” HMM's, i.e.(More)
We give a new true-concurrent model for probabilistic concurrent Kleene algebra. The model is based on probabilistic event structures , which combines ideas from Katoen's work on probabilistic con-currency and Varacca's probabilistic prime event structures. The event structures are compared with a true-concurrent version of Segala's prob-abilistic(More)
We propose a generalisation of concurrent Kleene algebra [5] that can take account of probabilistic effects in the presence of concurrency. The algebra is proved sound with respect to a model of automata modulo a variant of rooted η-simulation equivalence. Applicability is demonstrated by algebraic treatments of two examples: algebraic may testing and(More)
In quantitative information flow we say that program Q is " at least as secure as " P just when the amount of secret information flowing from Q is never more than flows from P , with of course a suitable quantification of " flow ". This secure-refinement order is compositional just when P Q implies C(P)C(Q) for any context C, again with a suitable(More)
A core property of program semantics is that local reasoning about program fragments remains sound even when the fragments are executed within a larger system. Mathematically this property corresponds to monotonicity of refinement : if A refines B then C(A) refines C(B) for any (valid) context defined by C(·). In other work we have studied a refines order(More)