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OBJECTIVES In an effort to fully analyse and understand the HIV situation and its epidemiology in Pakistan, a bilateral collaboration between the National AIDS Control Program and the Canadian International Development Agency resulted in the establishment of an effective second-generation surveillance (SGS) system for HIV/AIDS between 2004 and 2012 in(More)
OBJECTIVE We developed a mapping approach to gather data on distribution, number of settings, operational typologies and estimated size of female sex workers (FSWs), male sex workers, hijra sex workers and injection drug users in Pakistan. METHODS Data were collected across 12 major cities in Pakistan. Broader methodological steps involved dividing each(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess tolerance and safety of 0.6% chlorhexidine vaginal and neonatal wipes to improve perinatal outcomes in home deliveries in Pakistan and the ability of traditional birth attendants and project staff to perform a randomized trial of this intervention. METHODS Focus groups of pregnant and nonpregnant women and in-depth interviews of(More)
OBJECTIVES We describe the characteristics of injecting drug users (IDU) in Pakistan in 2006 and 2011, and assess the heterogeneity of IDU characteristics across different cities and years as well as factors associated with HIV infection. METHODS Cross-sectional, integrated behavioural-biological surveys of IDU were conducted in 10 cities across Pakistan(More)
BACKGROUND Considerable HIV transmission occurs among injection drug users (IDUs) in Pakistan and recently the HIV prevalence has been increasing among male (MSW), hijra (transgender; HSW) and female (FSW) sex workers. We describe past and estimate future patterns of HIV emergence among these populations in several cities in Pakistan. METHODS The density(More)
BACKGROUND We sought to describe the characteristics and operational dynamics of male sex workers (MSW) and hijra sex workers (HSWs) in 11 cities across Pakistan in 2011. METHODS We report descriptive statistics of self-reported sexual behaviour data from cross-sectional mapping and biological and behavioural surveys conducted among 1431 MSWs and 1415(More)
OBJECTIVE To estimate the effects of chlorhexidine vaginal and baby wipes on fetal and neonatal mortality, respectively, and infection-related morbidity. METHODS We performed a placebo-controlled, randomized trial of chlorhexidine vaginal and neonatal wipes to reduce neonatal sepsis and mortality in three hospitals in Pakistan. The primary study outcome(More)
BACKGROUND With competing interests, limited funding and a socially conservative context, there are many barriers to implementing evidence-informed HIV prevention programmes for sex workers and injection drug users in Pakistan. Meanwhile, the HIV prevalence is increasing among these populations across Pakistan. We sought to propose and describe an approach(More)
Concerns remain regarding the heterogeneity in overlapping human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk behaviors among sex workers (SWs) in Pakistan; specifically, the degree to which SWs interact with people who inject drugs (PWID) through sex and/or needle sharing.Following an in-depth mapping performed in 2011 to determine the size and distribution of key(More)
OBJECTIVE To illustrate perceptions, compliance to treatment and satisfaction levels regarding health education services pertaining to the anti-retrovival therapy among HIV and AIDS patients. METHODS The cross-sectional survey was carried out at the HIV Treatment Centre, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS), Islamabad, from September 2009 to(More)
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