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Losacco et al 's 1 review of practice across European neonatal units regarding the use of non-pharmacological analgesia (NPA) for painful procedures in neonatal units has highlighted the relatively infrequent use of these techniques. This is despite good evidence confi rming the effectiveness of NPA 2 and evidence of deleterious effects of pain in babies,… (More)
Early detection of polyps or colorectal carcinoma can reduce colorectal carcinoma-associated deaths. Previous studies have demonstrated raised serum levels of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (sMMP-9) in a range of cancers. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of sMMP-9 levels in identifying colorectal neoplasia. Consenting patients donated a blood… (More)
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is often diagnosed at a late stage with concomitant poor prognosis. Early detection greatly improves prognosis; however, the invasive, unpleasant and inconvenient nature of current diagnostic procedures limits their applicability. No serum-based test is currently of sufficient sensitivity or specificity for widespread use. In the… (More)
BACKGROUND Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of death in the United Kingdom. Regular screening could significantly reduce CRC-related morbidity and mortality. However, screening programmes in the United Kingdom have to date seen uptake rates of less than 60%. Attitudes towards screening are the primary factors determining patient uptake. METHODS A… (More)
BACKGROUND A blood test may be a more acceptable routine colorectal cancer (CRC) screening test than faecal occult blood test, flexible sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy, and could be safer and cheaper. We evaluated the accuracy of a serum matrix metalloproteinase (MMP9) test for CRC in a non-presenting symptomatic population. METHODS A cohort, aged 50-69 with… (More)
BACKGROUND Regulatory T cells (Treg) are enriched in human colorectal cancer (CRC) where they suppress anti-tumour immunity. The chemokine receptor CCR5 has been implicated in the recruitment of Treg from blood into CRC and tumour growth is delayed in CCR5-/- mice, associated with reduced tumour Treg infiltration. METHODS Tissue and blood samples were… (More)
BACKGROUND A blood test may be an effective means of improving the appropriateness of referrals for symptomatic patients referred to specialist colorectal clinics. We evaluated the accuracy of a serum matrix metalloproteinase (MMP9) test in indicating colorectal cancer or its precursor conditions in a symptomatic population. METHODS Patients aged over 18,… (More)
Exchange rate has great influence to the inflation and economic growth for a country. The importance of currency is that the great influence on import and export prices with the changes of exchange rate. Thus, maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) is used to fit finite mixture model. In this paper, a two-component mixture of normal distribution is used to… (More)
In this paper, we introduce and define a new type of numbers called hyper real numbers and infinitesimal sets as a new type of sets in the set of real numbers ℝ .We use these concepts to define and characterize a relation between infinitesimal sets and hype real numbers.
In this paper, we use some concepts of nonstandard analysis to establish whether all solutions of the functional equation í µí² í µí² + í µí² = í µí² í µí² + í µí² í µí² can be described in terms of a functional equation of the form í µí² í µí² = í µí²í µí² , where í µí² is unlimited or limited.