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Cotranscriptional histone methylations by Set1 and Set2 have been shown to affect histone acetylation at promoters and 3' regions of genes, respectively. While histone H3K4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) is thought to promote nucleosome acetylation and remodeling near promoters, we show here that H3K4 dimethylation (H3K4me2) by Set1 leads to reduced histone(More)
Packaging of DNA into chromatin has a profound impact on gene expression. To understand how changes in chromatin influence transcription, we analyzed 165 mutants of chromatin machinery components in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. mRNA expression patterns change in 80% of mutants, always with specific effects, even for loss of widespread histone marks. The data(More)
Matrix-producing osteoblasts and bone-resorbing osteoclasts maintain bone homeostasis. Osteoclasts are multinucleated, giant cells of hematopoietic origin formed by the fusion of mononuclear pre-osteoclasts derived from myeloid cells. Fusion-mediated giant cell formation is critical for osteoclast maturation; without it, bone resorption is inefficient. To(More)
The Set3 histone deacetylase complex (Set3C) binds histone H3 dimethylated at lysine 4 (H3K4me2) to mediate deacetylation of histones in 5'-transcribed regions. To discern how Set3C affects gene expression, genome-wide transcription was analyzed in yeast undergoing a series of carbon source shifts. Deleting SET3 primarily caused changes during transition(More)
Histone methylation is a reversible modification regulated by the antagonistic functions of residue-specific histone methyltransferases and demethylases. Although methylation of histone H3 at lysines 4 and 36 is linked to transcription, the roles of histone demethylases in transcription regulation are not understood. Here we show that overexpression of(More)
Osteoclasts are terminally differentiated leukocytes that erode the mineralized bone matrix. Osteoclastogenesis requires costimulatory receptor signaling through adaptors containing immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAMs), such as Fc receptor common γ (FcRγ) and DNAX-activating protein of 12 kDa. Identification of these ITAM-containing(More)
Single-stranded DNA-binding proteins play many roles in nucleic acid metabolism, but their importance during transcription remains unclear. Quantitative proteomic analysis of RNA polymerase II (RNApII) preinitiation complexes (PICs) identified Sub1 and the replication protein A complex (RPA), both of which bind single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). Sub1, homolog of(More)
Chd proteins are ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling enzymes implicated in biological functions from transcriptional elongation to control of pluripotency. Previous studies of the Chd1 subclass of these proteins have implicated them in diverse roles in gene expression including functions during initiation, elongation, and termination. Furthermore, some(More)
A spontaneous mutation in Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) induces a defect in B-cell development that results in the immunodeficiency diseases X-linked agammaglobulinemia in humans and X-linked immunodeficiency (Xid) in mice. Here we show an unexpected role of Btk in osteoclast formation. When bone marrow cells derived from Xid mice were stimulated with(More)
BACKGROUND Dental caries is considered to be a preventable disease, and various antimicrobial agents have been developed for the prevention of dental diseases; however, many bacteria show resistance to existing agents. In this study, 14 medicinal herbs were evaluated for antimicrobial activity against five common oral bacteria as a screen for potential(More)