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It is well known that the cognitive functions of juveniles recover to a greater extent than adult patients following traumatic brain injury (TBI). The exact mechanisms underlying this age-related disparity are unknown; however, we speculate that this improved recovery in juveniles following TBI may be associated with an endogenous neurogenic response in the(More)
OBJECT A wide variation in postoperative drainage volumes is observed during treatment of chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) with twist-drill or burr-hole craniostomy and closed-system drainage. In this study the authors investigate the causes of the variation, the clinical significance thereof, and its influence on treatment outcome. METHODS A total of 175(More)
OBJECT This study was conducted to determine whether perfluorocarbons (PFCs) improve brain oxygenation and reduce ischemic brain damage in an acute subdural hematoma (SDH) model in rats. METHODS Forty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were allocated to four groups: (1) controls, acute SDH treated with saline and 30% O2; (2) 30-PFC group, acute SDH treated(More)
Transient recovery (TR) of evoked synaptic potential during the late stage of hypoxic hypoglycemia (HH) insult was investigated in rat hippocampal slices using extracellular recording methods. TR was observed in association with a rapid deterioration of antidromic population spikes (aPSs) following HH insult. TR was not elicited in normoglycemic hypoxia(More)
OBJECTIVE Notochordal cells in the intervertebral disc interact with nucleus pulposus (NP) cells and support the maintenance of disc homeostasis by regulation of matrix production. However, the influence of notochordal cells has not been evaluated in the annulus fibrosus (AF), which is the primary pain generator in the disc. We hypothesized that the(More)
Schwannomas are relatively common, benign tumors that are thought to arise from the nerve sheath cell. Schwannomas of the C1 root are extremely rare and seldom invade lateral masses because they gradually increase in size and can extend through the wide space behind the lateral mass instead of the intervertebral foramen. We present here an unusual case of a(More)
The authors report a case of oncocytic paraganglioma of the cauda equina in a 12-year-old girl who presented with lower back and leg pain on the right side of 6 months' duration. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an ellipsoidal, intradural, extramedullary mass causing cord compression at the level of L1. Total laminectomy was performed on T12 and L1, and(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the role played by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling in the interactions between macrophages and intervertebral disc (IVD) cells, it was hypothesized that MAPK inhibition would modulate the production of the proinflammatory cytokines associated with inflammatory reaction in IVD cells. METHODS Human annulus fibrosus(More)
OBJECTIVE The preferred choice of anesthesia for deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been local anesthesia due to the need of patients' cooperation during the procedure, and concern on the interference of sedatives on microelectrode recording (MER) results. However, local anesthesia during the whole procedure may be impossible in some patients due to(More)
OBJECTIVE Symptomatic disc degeneration develops from inflammatory reactions in the annulus fibrosus (AF). Although inflammatory mediators during annular inflammation have been studied, the roles of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their inhibitors have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we evaluated the production of MMPs and tissue inhibitors(More)