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The heterogeneity of the Internet's transmission resources and end sys tem capability makes it difficult to agree on acceptable traffic characteristics among the multiple receivers of a multicast video stream. Three basic approaches have been proposed to deal with this problem: 1) multicasting of replicated video streams at different rates, 2) multicasting(More)
Alcohol-sensitive type 1 equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT1) regulates adenosine-mediated glutamate neurotransmission in the brain. Our behavioral studies suggest that the diminished aversive effects of ethanol and the increased resistance to acute ethanol intoxication in mice lacking ENT1, could be related to increased voluntary ethanol(More)
Dynamic behavior of the Internet’s transmission resources makes it difficult to provide perceptually good quality of streaming video. MPEG-4 Fine-Grained Scalable coding is proposed to deal with this problem by distributing the data in enhancement layers over a wide range of bit rates. However, encoded video also exhibits significant data rate variability(More)
Adenosine signaling has been implicated in the pathophysiology of many psychiatric disorders including alcoholism. Striatal adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR) play an essential role in both ethanol drinking and the shift from goal-directed action to habitual behavior. However, direct evidence for a role of striatal A2AR signaling in ethanol drinking and habit(More)
PURPOSE The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of radiotherapy on the cosmetic outcome after immediate breast reconstruction using an absorbable mesh in breast cancer. METHODS From July 2008 to July 2009, 35 breast cancer patients who received immediate breast reconstruction with absorbable mesh insertion at the time of breast(More)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia among the elderly population. AD, which is characterized as a disease of cognitive deficits, is mainly associated with an increase of amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) in the brain. A growing body of recent studies suggests that protein kinase C (PKC) promotes the production of the secretory form of amyloid(More)
The fusion of the short (p) and long (q) arms of a chromosome is referred to as a "ring chromosome." Ring chromosome disorders occur in approximately 1 in 50,000-100,000 patients. Ring chromosomes can result in birth defects, mental disabilities, and growth retardation if additional genes are deleted during the formation of the ring. Due to the severity of(More)
Large chromosomal aberrations occur commonly during development, resulting in complex and multisystem diseases. In spite of this high frequency, there are currently no means for correcting these disorders due to their complexity and involvement of multiple genes. Recently, several new approaches have been devised that target whole chromosomes in vitro,(More)
BACKGROUND Mice lacking type 1 equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT1(-/-)) exhibit increased ethanol-preferring behavior compared with wild-type littermates. This phenotype of ENT1(-/-) mice appears to be correlated with increased glutamate levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). However, little is known about the downstream consequences of increased(More)