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We previously reported that ginseng, a well-known herbal medicine, inhibited NMDA receptors in cultured hippocampal neurons. Here, we further examined the detailed mechanism of ginseng-mediated inhibition using its main active ingredient, ginsenoside Rg3. Co-application of ginsenoside Rg3 with increasing concentrations of NMDA did not change the EC50 of(More)
The heterogeneity of the Internet's transmission resources and end sys tem capability makes it difficult to agree on acceptable traffic characteristics among the multiple receivers of a multicast video stream. Three basic approaches have been proposed to deal with this problem: 1) multicasting of replicated video streams at different rates, 2) multicasting(More)
— Dynamic behavior of the Internet's transmission resources makes it difficult to provide perceptually good quality of streaming video. MPEG-4 Fine-Grained Scalable coding is proposed to deal with this problem by distributing the data in enhancement layers over a wide range of bit rates. However, encoded video also exhibits significant data rate variability(More)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia among the elderly population. AD, which is characterized as a disease of cognitive deficits, is mainly associated with an increase of amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) in the brain. A growing body of recent studies suggests that protein kinase C (PKC) promotes the production of the secretory form of amyloid(More)
—The heterogeneity of the Internet's transmission resources and end system capability makes it difficult to agree on acceptable traffic characteristics among the multiple receivers of a multicast video stream. Three basic approaches have been proposed to deal with this problem: 1) multicasting the replicated video streams at different rates; 2) multicasting(More)
Chronic pain can lead to anxiety and anxiety can enhance the sensation of pain. Unfortunately, little is known about the synaptic mechanisms that mediate these re-enforcing interactions. Here we characterized two forms of long-term potentiation (LTP) in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC); a presynaptic form (pre-LTP) that requires kainate receptors and a(More)
Alcohol-sensitive type 1 equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT1) regulates adenosine-mediated glutamate neurotransmission in the brain. Our behavioral studies suggest that the diminished aversive effects of ethanol and the increased resistance to acute ethanol intoxication in mice lacking ENT1, could be related to increased voluntary ethanol(More)
In order to investigate the currently unknown cellular signaling pathways of T-type Ca(2+) channels, we decided to construct a new cell line which would stably express alpha(1G) and Kir2.1 subunits in HEK293 cells (HEK293/alpha(1G)/Kir2.1). Compared to cells which only expressed alpha(1G) (HEK293/alpha(1G)), HEK293/alpha(1G)/Kir2.1 cells produced an(More)
Adenosine-regulated glutamate signaling in astrocytes is implicated in many neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. In this study, we examined whether adenosine A1 receptor regulates EAAT2 expression in astrocytes using pharmacological agents and siRNAs. We found that adenosine A1 receptor-specific antagonist DPCPX or PSB36 decreased EAAT2 expression(More)