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Cells differentiate when transcription factors bind accessible cis-regulatory elements to establish specific gene expression programs. In differentiating embryonic stem cells, chromatin at lineage-restricted genes becomes sequentially accessible, probably by means of 'pioneer' transcription factor activity, but tissues may use other strategies in vivo.(More)
Notch signaling is active in many sites, and its diverse activities must require tissue-specific intermediaries, which are largely unknown. In the intestinal epithelium, Notch promotes crypt cell proliferation and inhibits goblet cell differentiation. Pharmacologic studies suggest that the latter effect occurs through the transcription factor Math1/Atoh1,(More)
The mammalian adult gastric epithelium self-renews continually through the activity of stem cells located in the isthmus of individual gland units. Mechanisms facilitating stomach stem and progenitor cell homeostasis are unknown. Here, we show that Notch signaling occurs in the mouse stomach epithelium during development and becomes restricted mainly to the(More)
We investigated the effects of quercetin on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced oxidative stress and the expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 in mice. Quercetin was administered orally to mice at 100 or 250 mg/kg BW for 18 days, after which DMBA (34 mg/kg BW) was administered intragastrically twice. Quercetin showed side effects such as increased(More)
Here we identify the humpty dumpty (humdy) mouse mutant with failure to close the neural tube and optic fissure, causing exencephaly and retinal coloboma, common birth defects. The humdy mutation disrupts Phactr4, an uncharacterized protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) and actin regulator family member, and the missense mutation specifically disrupts binding to PP1.(More)
BACKGROUND Cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) encompasses conditions in which cardiac and renal disorders co-exist and are pathophysiologically related. The newest classification of CRS into seven etiologically and clinically distinct types for direct patient management purposes includes hemodynamic, uremic, vascular, neurohumoral, anemia- and/or iron(More)
The digestive tract epithelium and its adjoining mesenchyme undergo coordinated patterning and growth during development. The signals they exchange in the process are not fully characterized but include ligands of the Hedgehog (Hh) family, which originate in the epithelium and are necessary for mesenchymal cells to expand in number and drive elongation of(More)
To investigate the effects of equol on cell cycle distribution and apoptosis in human breast cancer cells, we first determined the antiproliferative effects of various concentrations of equol (1 nM to 100 µM) on MCF-7 and MDA-MB-453 cells at 24, 48 or 72 h of exposure. Equol significantly inhibited proliferation in MDA-MB-453 cells in a dose- and(More)
It has been reported that deer antler extract has anti-bone resorptive activity in vivo. However, little is known about the cellular and molecular mechanism of this effect. In this study, we investigated the effects of deer antler extracts on osteoclast differentiation and bone-resorption in vitro. Chloroform extract (CE-C) of deer antler inhibited(More)
A knot in the 3-sphere is called doubly slice if it is a slice of an unknotted 2-sphere in the 4-sphere. We give a bi-sequence of new obstructions for a knot being doubly slice. We construct it following the idea of Cochran-Orr-Teichner's filtration of the classical knot concordance group. This yields a bi-filtration of the monoid of knots (under the(More)