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Cells differentiate when transcription factors bind accessible cis-regulatory elements to establish specific gene expression programs. In differentiating embryonic stem cells, chromatin at lineage-restricted genes becomes sequentially accessible, probably by means of 'pioneer' transcription factor activity, but tissues may use other strategies in vivo.(More)
Here we identify the humpty dumpty (humdy) mouse mutant with failure to close the neural tube and optic fissure, causing exencephaly and retinal coloboma, common birth defects. The humdy mutation disrupts Phactr4, an uncharacterized protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) and actin regulator family member, and the missense mutation specifically disrupts binding to PP1.(More)
Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) is caused by a reduction of enteric neural crest cells (ENCCs) in the gut and gastrointestinal blockage. Knowledge of the genetics underlying HSCR is incomplete, particularly genes that control cellular behaviors of ENCC migration. Here we report a novel regulator of ENCC migration in mice. Disruption of the Phactr4 gene causes(More)
We investigated the effects of genistein and genistin on proliferation and apoptosis of human ovarian SK-OV-3 cells and explored the mechanism for these effects. SK-OV-3 cells were treated with genistein and genistin at various concentrations (ranging from 1 to 100 muM) either alone or in combination for 24 and 48 h. Cell proliferation was estimated using(More)
The digestive tract epithelium and its adjoining mesenchyme undergo coordinated patterning and growth during development. The signals they exchange in the process are not fully characterized but include ligands of the Hedgehog (Hh) family, which originate in the epithelium and are necessary for mesenchymal cells to expand in number and drive elongation of(More)
The mammalian adult gastric epithelium self-renews continually through the activity of stem cells located in the isthmus of individual gland units. Mechanisms facilitating stomach stem and progenitor cell homeostasis are unknown. Here, we show that Notch signaling occurs in the mouse stomach epithelium during development and becomes restricted mainly to the(More)
Lifelong self-renewal of the adult intestinal epithelium requires the activity of stem cells located in mucosal crypts. Lgr5 and Bmi1 are two molecular markers of crypt-cell populations that replenish all lineages over time and hence function as stem cells. Intestinal stem cells require Wnt signaling, but the understanding of their cellular niche is(More)
We investigated the effects of quercetin on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced oxidative stress and the expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 in mice. Quercetin was administered orally to mice at 100 or 250 mg/kg BW for 18 days, after which DMBA (34 mg/kg BW) was administered intragastrically twice. Quercetin showed side effects such as increased(More)
Notch signaling is active in many sites, and its diverse activities must require tissue-specific intermediaries, which are largely unknown. In the intestinal epithelium, Notch promotes crypt cell proliferation and inhibits goblet cell differentiation. Pharmacologic studies suggest that the latter effect occurs through the transcription factor Math1/Atoh1,(More)