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A knot in the 3-sphere is called doubly slice if it is a slice of an unknotted 2-sphere in the 4-sphere. We give a bi-sequence of new obstructions for a knot being doubly slice. We construct it following the idea of Cochran-Orr-Teichner's filtration of the classical knot concordance group. This yields a bi-filtration of the monoid of knots (under the(More)
BACKGROUND CONTEXT Ongoing research to understand the mechanism behind pain is heavily dependent on animal testing. However, unlike humans, animal subjects cannot directly communicate with researchers to express the degree of pain they are experiencing. Therefore, measuring the presence of pain in animal studies is based on behavioral tests. The use of(More)
UNLABELLED Ischemia induces extensive temporal changes in cerebral transcriptome that influences the neurologic outcome after stroke. In addition to protein-coding RNAs, many classes of noncoding RNAs, including long noncoding RNAs (LncRNAs), also undergo changes in the poststroke brain. We currently evaluated the functional significance of an LncRNA called(More)
Every element in the first cohomology group of a 3–manifold is dual to embedded surfaces. The Thurston norm measures the minimal 'complexity' of such surfaces. For instance the Thurston norm of a knot complement determines the genus of the knot in the 3–sphere. We show that the degrees of twisted Alexander polynomials give lower bounds on the Thurston norm,(More)
UNLABELLED α-Synuclein (α-Syn), one of the most abundant proteins in the CNS, is known to be a major player in the neurodegeneration observed in Parkinson's disease. We currently report that transient focal ischemia upregulates α-Syn protein expression and nuclear translocation in neurons of the adult rodent brain. We further show that knockdown or(More)
We propose a vector tracking loop (VTL) algorithm for an asynchronous pseudolite navigation system. It was implemented in a software receiver and experiments in an indoor navigation system were conducted. Test results show that the VTL successfully tracks signals against the near-far problem, one of the major limitations in pseudolite navigation systems,(More)
Geographic routing has been considered as an efficient, simple, and scalable routing protocol for wireless sensor networks since it exploits pure location information instead of global topology information to route data packets. Geographic routing requires the source nodes to be aware of the location of the sink nodes. How source nodes efficiently obtain(More)