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T-type Ca(2+) currents have been proposed to be involved in the genesis of spike-and-wave discharges, a sign of absence seizures, but direct evidence in vivo to support this hypothesis has been lacking. To address this question, we generated a null mutation of the alpha(1G) subunit of T-type Ca(2+) channels. The thalamocortical relay neurons of the(More)
High molecular weight homologues of gp91phox, the superoxide-generating subunit of phagocyte nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-oxidase, have been identified in human (h) and Caenorhabditis elegans (Ce), and are termed Duox for "dual oxidase" because they have both a peroxidase homology domain and a gp91phox domain. A topology model(More)
R-type Ca2+ channels play a critical role in coupling excitability to dendritic Ca2+ influx and neuronal secretion. Unlike other types of voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channels (L, N, P/Q, and T type), the molecular basis for the R-type Ca2+ channel is still unclear, thereby limiting further detailed analyses of R-type Ca2+ channel physiology. The prevailing(More)
The neurotoxicity of dithiocarbamates has been previously reported, however, the detailed mechanism underlying the neurotoxicity is still not fully understood. Among the dithiocarbamates, we investigated thiram and ziram in a neuronal-like pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. Thiram and ziram strongly induced cell death in both dose- and time-dependent manners(More)
BACKGROUND The clinical manifestations of severe asthma are heterogeneous. Some individuals with severe asthma develop irreversible fixed airway obstruction, which is associated with poor outcomes. We therefore investigated the factors associated with fixed airway obstruction in Korean patients with severe asthma. METHODS Severe asthma patients from a(More)
BACKGROUND There have been few studies of pulmonary actinomycosis, which is an uncommon anaerobic infection. Consequently, the optimal therapeutic regimen, appropriate duration of treatment, long-term prognosis, and factors predicting prognosis are not well established. METHODS We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of histopathologically(More)
BACKGROUND The liver is the most commonly involved internal organ in drug-induced systemic hypersensitivity. However, data obtained from these patients have yet to be analyzed in depth with respect to liver injury. METHODS The medical records of 136 patients who developed delayed-type drug hypersensitivity were reviewed at a tertiary referral hospital.(More)
Antioxidants have been suggested to alleviate the pathophysiological features of asthma, and grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) has been reported to have powerful antioxidant activity. This study was performed to determine whether GSPE has a therapeutic effect on allergic airway inflammation in both acute and chronic murine model of asthma. Acute(More)
Background: Transforming growth factor-b1 (TGF-b1) induces the differentiation of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hASCs) into smooth muscle cells. Lipid rafts are cholesterol-rich microdomains in cell membranes that reportedly play a key role in receptor-mediated signal transduction and cellular responses. In order to clarify whether(More)
Flash memory in various embedded systems such as the backing memory is frequently used in an active type of RFID reader. Because batteries are used in a shifting environment and shifting is seriously considered, embedded systems receive a lot of influence by power failure while using and shock from outside environment. In order to manage efficiently flash(More)