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Successful integration of advanced semiconductor devices with biological systems will accelerate basic scientific discoveries and their translation into clinical technologies. In neuroscience generally, and in optogenetics in particular, the ability to insert light sources, detectors, sensors, and other components into precise locations of the deep brain(More)
An important trend in electronics involves the development of materials, mechanical designs and manufacturing strategies that enable the use of unconventional substrates, such as polymer films, metal foils, paper sheets or rubber slabs. The last possibility is particularly challenging because the systems must accommodate not only bending but also(More)
Recently developed flexible mechanosensors based on inorganic silicon, organic semiconductors, carbon nanotubes, graphene platelets, pressure-sensitive rubber and self-powered devices are highly sensitive and can be applied to human skin. However, the development of a multifunctional sensor satisfying the requirements of ultrahigh mechanosensitivity,(More)
The rise of optogenetics provides unique opportunities to advance materials and biomedical engineering, as well as fundamental understanding in neuroscience. This protocol describes the fabrication of optoelectronic devices for studying intact neural systems. Unlike optogenetic approaches that rely on rigid fiber optics tethered to external light sources,(More)
A method for forming efficient, ultrathin GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and for their assembly onto foreign substances is reported. The LEDs have lateral dimensions ranging from ~1 mm × 1 mm to ~25 μm × 25 μm. Quantitative experimental and theoretical studies show the benefits of small device geometry on thermal management, for both continuous and(More)
We present a specially designed materials chemistry that provides ultrathin adhesive layers with persistent tacky surfaces in solid, nonflowable forms for use in transfer printing and related approaches to materials and micro/nanostructure assembly. The material can be photocured after assembly, to yield a robust and highly transparent coating that is also(More)
We propose a Local Mobility Anchor (LMA) initiated route optimization protocol for a smooth transition from the old optimized path to a new optimized path after handover in Proxy Mobile IP (PMIP). The LMA initiated protocol can reduce the handover latency and achieve fast recovery of the optimized path after handover. As a result, the proposed protocol(More)
Optogenetics allows rapid, temporally specific control of neuronal activity by targeted expression and activation of light-sensitive proteins. Implementation typically requires remote light sources and fiber-optic delivery schemes that impose considerable physical constraints on natural behaviors. In this report we bypass these limitations using(More)
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are essential for a wide range of biological and pathological events. During infection and inflammation, the phagocytic leukocytes, including neutrophils, monocytes, and macrophages generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) to kill invading bacteria and pathogens. Among ROS, hypochlorous acid (HOCl/OCl ) is a highly reactive(More)