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Histone modifications are implicated in influencing gene expression. We have generated high-resolution maps for the genome-wide distribution of 20 histone lysine and arginine methylations as well as histone variant H2A.Z, RNA polymerase II, and the insulator binding protein CTCF across the human genome using the Solexa 1G sequencing technology. Typical(More)
The positioning of nucleosomes with respect to DNA plays an important role in regulating transcription. However, nucleosome mapping has been performed for only limited genomic regions in humans. We have generated genome-wide maps of nucleosome positions in both resting and activated human CD4+ T cells by direct sequencing of nucleosome ends using the Solexa(More)
tered at +120 bp, the following ones at +300 and +480, respectively. RNA POL II sits right on the TSS. In the upstream region, we observe no periodic signal indicative of regular nucleosome positioning (phasing) across promoters. The closest nucleosomes are located around position −180 leaving a minimal nucleosome-free promoter region of 150 bp. As the(More)
Microglia and macrophages play an important role in the innate and adaptive immune systems. Although the resident location of these cells is different, their functions during the polarization response due to various stimuli are very similar. The present study aimed to analyze differences in microglial and macrophage gene expression during inflammation.(More)
Aebp2 is a potential targeting protein for the mammalian Polycomb Repression Complex 2 (PRC2). We generated a mutant mouse line disrupting the transcription of Aebp2 to investigate its in vivo roles. Aebp2-mutant homozygotes were embryonic lethal while heterozygotes survived to adulthood with fertility. In developing mouse embryos, Aebp2 is expressed mainly(More)
MOTIVATION Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are spherical bilayered proteolipids, harboring various bioactive molecules. Due to the complexity of the vesicular nomenclatures and components, online searches for EV-related publications and vesicular components are currently challenging. RESULTS We present an improved version of EVpedia, a public database for(More)
Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs), secreted from Gram-negative bacteria, are spherical nanometer-sized proteolipids enriched with outer membrane proteins. OMVs, also known as extracellular vesicles, have gained interests for use as nonliving complex vaccines and have been examined for immune-stimulating effects. However, the detailed mechanism on how OMVs(More)
Gut microbiota play an important part in the pathogenesis of mucosal inflammation, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, owing to the complexity of the gut microbiota, our understanding of the roles of commensal and pathogenic bacteria in the maintenance of immune homeostasis in the gut is evolving only slowly. Here, we evaluated the role of(More)
Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are key chromatin regulators implicated in multiple processes including embryonic development, tissue homeostasis, genomic imprinting, X-chromosome inactivation, and germ cell differentiation. The PcG proteins recognize target genomic loci through cis DNA sequences known as Polycomb Response Elements (PREs), which are well(More)
In patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), stem cells can serve as therapeutic agents to restore or regenerate injured nervous system. Here, we differentiated two types of stem cells; mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) and protein-based iPS cells (P-iPSCs) generated by non-viral methods, into midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neurons, and then compared the(More)