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Four different genes have now been found to contain AD-associated mutations or polymorphisms. While the pathogenic mutations in the early-onset FAD genes, APP, PS1, and PS2 directly cause AD with nearly 100% penetrance, in a larger subset of AD cases with onset over 60 years (maximally for onset at 61-65 years), inheritance of the APOE4 allele confers(More)
Most cases of early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) are caused by mutations in the genes encoding the presenilin 1 (PS1) and PS2 proteins, both of which undergo regulated endoproteolytic processing. During apoptosis, PS1 and PS2 were shown to be cleaved at sites distal to their normal cleavage sites by a caspase-3 family protease. In cells(More)
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a common, lethal, chromosome X-linked inherited disease. Moderate cognitive impairment is a feature of DMD, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. DMD is characterized by a defect in a protein, dystrophin, that is located predominantly in muscle but has been detected in brain. We sought to directly localize(More)
Mutations in two recently identified genes appear to cause the majority of early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD). These two novel genes, presenilin 1 (PS1) and presenilin 2 (PS2) are members of an evolutionarily conserved gene family. The normal biological role(s) of the presenilins and the mechanism(s) by which the FAD-associated mutations exert(More)
The N141I mutation in presenilin (PS) 2 is tightly linked with a form of autosomal dominant familial Alzheimer's disease in the Volga German families. We previously reported that mouse brains harboring mutant PS2 contained increased levels of amyloid beta protein (Abeta) 42 in the Tris-saline-soluble fraction (Oyama, F., Sawamura, N., Kobayashi, K.,(More)
A novel and highly conserved presynaptic protein has been independently described in rodents (synuclein/SYN-1), songbirds (synelfin), and humans (the precursor protein of the non-A beta component of senile plaques, NACP); a fragment of the latter has been detected in senile plaques in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We characterized the expression of NACP in(More)
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is characterized by a defect in dystrophin, a high molecular weight protein that is located predominantly in muscle, but which has been detected in brain. Brain dystrophin has been localized to the synapse, in the postsynaptic density (PSD), and is absent in the mdx mouse, an animal model of human DMD. To define the(More)
PURPOSE To introduce a novel, digital, three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of the optic nerve head (ONH) and to use this method to evaluate the 3D configuration of the lamina cribrosa (LC) in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma. METHODS Optic discs of 137 eyes of 137 patients with open-angle glaucoma were scanned with enhanced depth-imaging(More)
Senile plaques, a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD), contain amyloid beta-peptide (A beta), which is generated from the larger amyloid beta protein precursor (APP). In addition to APP, several APP-related proteins have been recently identified in different organisms, including Drosophila amyloid precursor protein-like protein (APPL). Deficiency of APPL(More)