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BACKGROUND Imiquimod (IQ) is known as an agonist of Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) and is widely used to treat various infectious skin diseases. However, it causes severe itching sensation as its side effect. The precise mechanism of how IQ causes itching sensation is unknown. A recent report suggested a molecular target of IQ as TLR7 expressed in dorsal root(More)
In Alzheimer's disease (AD), memory impairment is the most prominent feature that afflicts patients and their families. Although reactive astrocytes have been observed around amyloid plaques since the disease was first described, their role in memory impairment has been poorly understood. Here, we show that reactive astrocytes aberrantly and abundantly(More)
A tonic form of synaptic inhibition occurs in discrete regions of the central nervous system and has an important role in controlling neuronal excitability. Recently, we reported that GABA present in astrocyte is the major source of tonic inhibition in cerebellum and that GABA is released through Bestrophin-1 channel by direct permeation. In this study, we(More)
GABA is the major inhibitory transmitter in the brain and is released not only from a subset of neurons but also from glia. Although neuronal GABA is well known to be synthesized by glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), the source of glial GABA is unknown. After estimating the concentration of GABA in Bergmann glia to be around 5-10 mM by immunogold electron(More)
During cortical circuit development in the mammalian brain, groups of excitatory neurons that receive similar sensory information form microcircuits. However, cellular mechanisms underlying cortical microcircuit development remain poorly understood. Here we implemented combined two-photon imaging and photolysis in vivo to monitor and manipulate neuronal(More)
[Purpose] This study compared and analyzed use of an existing ankle ramp and a newly developed ankle ramp for stretching exercises. [Subjects] Fourteen subjects were included; they were stroke patients more than 6 months after onset, with no orthopedic or biological problems in the legs, so independent gait was possible. [Methods] The subjects performed(More)