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Polyploidization has provided much genetic variation for plant adaptive evolution, but the mechanisms by which the molecular evolution of polyploid genomes establishes genetic architecture underlying species differentiation are unclear. Brassica is an ideal model to increase knowledge of polyploid evolution. Here we describe a draft genome sequence of(More)
Strong evidence exists for polyploidy having occurred during the evolution of the tribe Brassiceae. We show evidence for the dynamic and ongoing diploidization process by comparative analysis of the sequences of four paralogous Brassica rapa BAC clones and the homologous 124-kb segment of Arabidopsis thaliana chromosome 5. We estimated the times since(More)
A detailed genetic linkage map of Brassica rapa has been constructed containing 545 sequence-tagged loci covering 1287 cM, with an average mapping interval of 2.4 cM. The loci were identified using a combination of 520 RFLP and 25 PCR-based markers. RFLP probes were derived from 359 B. rapa EST clones and amplification products of 11 B. rapa and 26(More)
Brassica rapa is one of the most economically important vegetable crops worldwide. Owing to its agronomic importance and phylogenetic position, B. rapa provides a crucial reference to understand polyploidy-related crop genome evolution. The high degree of sequence identity and remarkably conserved genome structure between Arabidopsis and Brassica genomes(More)
We describe the morphology and molecular organization of heterochromatin domains in the interphase nuclei, and mitotic and meiotic chromosomes, of Brassica rapa, using DAPI staining and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of rDNA and pericentromere tandem repeats. We have developed a simple method to distinguish the centromeric regions of mitotic(More)
Metabolite profiling and fingerprint analysis by (1)H NMR spectroscopy were used to identify potential biomarkers capable of distinguishing different ginseng species, varieties, and commercial products with the aim of establishing quality control code protocol based on biochemical phenotype. Principal component (PC) analyses of (1)H NMR spectra reliably(More)
Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs) represent short tandem duplications found within all eukaryotic organisms. To examine the distribution of SSRs in the genome of Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis, SSRs from different genomic regions representing 17.7 Mb of genomic sequence were surveyed. SSRs appear more abundant in non-coding regions (86.6%) than in coding(More)
Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis (Chinese cabbage) is an economically important crop and a model plant for studies on polyploidization and phenotypic evolution. To gain an insight into the structure of the B. rapa genome we analyzed 12,017 BAC-end sequences for the presence of transposable elements (TEs), SSRs, centromeric satellite repeats and genes, and(More)
We report the identification and characterization of the major repeats in the centromeric and peri-centromeric heterochromatin of Brassica rapa. The analysis involved the characterization of 88 629 bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC) end sequences and the complete sequences of two BAC clones. We identified centromere-specific retrotransposons of Brassica(More)
Tandemly repeated DNA, also called as satellite DNA, is a common feature of eukaryotic genomes. Satellite repeats can expand and contract dramatically, which may cause genome size variation among genetically-related species. However, the origin and expansion mechanism are not clear yet and needed to be elucidated. FISH analysis revealed that the satellite(More)