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ince the Internet was opened to commercial traffic in 1992, it has grown rapidly from an experimental research network to an extensive public data network. Demand is pushing the capabilities of today's Internet in several dimensions: transmission bandwidth, number of hosts, geographic size, and traffic volume. At the same time, the Internet is evolving from(More)
The disruption of blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) after spinal cord injury (SCI) elicits an intensive local inflammation by the infiltration of blood cells such as neutrophils and macrophages, leading to cell death and permanent neurological disability. SCI activates matrix metalloprotease-9 (MMP-9), which is known to induce BSCB disruption. Here, we(More)
We evaluated the contribution of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and the events upstream/downstream of p38 leading to dopaminergic neuronal death. We utilized MN9D cells and primary cultures of mesencephalic neurons treated with 6-hydroxydopamine. Phosphorylation of p38 preceded apoptosis and was sustained in 6-hydroxydopamine-treated MN9D cells.(More)
We examined the effects of minocycline, an anti-inflammatory drug, on functional recovery following spinal cord injury (SCI). Rats received a mild, weight-drop contusion injury to the spinal cord and were treated with the vehicle or minocycline at a dose of 90 mg/kg immediately after SCI and then twice at a dose of 45 mg/kg every 12 h. Injecting minocycline(More)
Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes a permanent neurological disability, and no satisfactory treatment is currently available. After SCI, pro-nerve growth factor (proNGF) is known to play a pivotal role in apoptosis of oligodendrocytes, but the cell types producing proNGF and the signaling pathways involved in proNGF production are primarily unknown. Here, we(More)
Buffering extracellular pH at the site of a spinal cord crush-injury may stimulate axonal regeneration in rats (1; Guth et al., Exp. Neurol. 88: 44-55, 1985). We demonstrated in cultured astrocytes that acidic pH initiates a rapid increase in immunoreactivity for GFAP (GFAP-IR), a hallmark of reactive gliosis (2; Oh et al., Glia 13: 319-322, 1995). We(More)
Recent evidence indicates that estrogen exerts neuroprotective effects in both brain injury and neurodegenerative diseases. We examined the protective effect of estrogen on functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats. 17beta-estradiol (3, 100, or 300 microg/kg) was administered intravenously 1-2 h prior to injury (pre-treatment), and animals(More)
Spinal cord injury (SCI) induces massive cell death, leading to permanent neurological disability. No satisfactory treatment is currently available. Ghrelin, a gastric hormone, is known to stimulate GH release from the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. Here, we report that ghrelin administration improves functional recovery after SCI in part by inhibiting(More)
Although the cause of neuronal death in Parkinson's disease (PD) is mainly unknown, growing evidence suggests that both apoptotic and non-apoptotic death may occur in PD. Using primary cultures of mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons and the MN9D dopaminergic neuronal cell line, we attempted to evaluate specifically the existence of the mitochondrial(More)
Here, we first demonstrated the neuroprotective effect of acupuncture after SCI. Acupuncture applied at two specific acupoints, Shuigou (GV26) and Yanglingquan (GB34) significantly alleviated apoptotic cell death of neurons and oligodendrocytes, thereby leading to improved functional recovery after SCI. Acupuncture also inhibited caspase-3 activation and(More)