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In this study, we examined the possibility that MPTP and 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) act on distinct cell death pathways in a murine dopaminergic neuronal cell line, MN9D. First, we found that cells treated with 6-OHDA accompanied ultrastructural changes typical of apoptosis, whereas MPP+ treatment induced necrotic manifestations. Proteolytic cleavage of(More)
Two cysteine protease families, caspase and calpain, are known to participate in cell death. We investigated whether a stress-specific protease activation pathway exists, and to what extent Bcl-2 plays a role in preventing drug-induced protease activity and cell death in a dopaminergic neuronal cell line, MN9D. Staurosporine (STS) induced caspase-dependent(More)
Certain natural products and Asian herbal remedies have been used in Asia to attenuate neurodegenerative diseases, including senile dementia. We have examined derivatives of several natural products for potential neuroprotective activity in an in vitro test system. In the present study, we assayed a number of compounds that were isolated from Panax ginseng(More)
We investigated the role of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha in the onset of neuronal and glial apoptosis after traumatic spinal cord crush injury in rats. A few TUNEL-positive cells were first observed within and surrounding the lesion area 4 h after injury, with the largest number observed 24-48 h after injury. Double-labeling of cells using cell(More)
To further characterize MPP(+)-induced cell death and to explore the role of Bcl-2-related proteins in this death paradigm, we utilized a mesencephalon-derived dopaminergic neuronal cell line (MN9D) stably transfected with human bcl-2 (MN9D/Bcl-2), its C-terminal deletion mutant (MN9D/Bcl-2Delta22), murine bax (MN9D/Bax), or a control vector (MN9D/Neo). As(More)
In mammals, immediate-early transcription of the Period 1 (Per1) gene is crucial for resetting the mammalian circadian clock. Here, we show that CLOCK is a real signalling molecule that mediates the serum-evoked rapid induction of Per1 in fibroblasts through the Ca2+-dependent protein kinase C (PKC) pathway. Stimulation with serum rapidly induced nuclear(More)
Transferrin is the plasma protein responsible for iron transport in all vertebrates. While transferrin is known to have growth-promoting activity on a variety of cells in culture, the role of transferrin and its membrane receptor in neuronal development is unknown. Using antibodies to transferrin and transferrin receptors, we studied the immunocytochemical(More)
Astroglia in cultures of dissociated neonatal rat optic nerves were studied by light microscopy, immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy to determine whether intermediate filaments play a role in defining the multipolar morphology of the mature astrocyte. Immature, polygonal astroblasts contained few glial filaments, in spite of exhibiting positive(More)
In higher vertebrates, reactive gliosis resulting from injury to the central nervous system (CNS) is characterized by a rapid increase in immunoreactivity (IR) to glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Little is known about the extracellular signals that initiate the increase in GFAP-IR following CNS injury. We demonstrated recently [T.H. Oh, G.J.(More)
To examine the correlation between the structure of Bcl-2 and its inhibitory function of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and caspase activity, we established a dopaminergic neuronal cell line, MN9D overexpressing Bcl-2 (MN9D/Bcl-2) or its structural mutants. The mutants comprised a point mutation in the BH1 (G145A; MN9D/BH1) or BH2 (W188A; MN9D/BH2) domain(More)