George J Markelonis8
Tae Y Yune7
Young J Oh6
Jee Y Lee4
8George J Markelonis
7Tae Y Yune
6Young J Oh
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We examined the effects of minocycline, an anti-inflammatory drug, on functional recovery following spinal cord injury (SCI). Rats received a mild, weight-drop contusion injury to the spinal cord and were treated with the vehicle or minocycline at a dose of 90 mg/kg immediately after SCI and then twice at a dose of 45 mg/kg every 12 h. Injecting minocycline(More)
Acupuncture (AP) has been used worldwide to relieve pain. However, the mechanism of action of AP is poorly understood. Here, we found that AP relieved neuropathic pain (NP) by inhibiting Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation in astrocytes after spinal cord injury (SCI). After contusion injury which induces the below-level (L4-L5) NP, Shuigou (GV26) and(More)
Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes a permanent neurological disability, and no satisfactory treatment is currently available. After SCI, pro-nerve growth factor (proNGF) is known to play a pivotal role in apoptosis of oligodendrocytes, but the cell types producing proNGF and the signaling pathways involved in proNGF production are primarily unknown. Here, we(More)
— This paper investigates distributed fault restoration techniques for multiprotocol label switching (MPLS) to automatically reroute label switched paths in the event of link or router failures while maintaining quality of service (QoS) requirements. Protocols for path and partial path restoration are evaluated. A backup route selection algorithm based on(More)
Although the cause of neuronal death in Parkinson's disease (PD) is mainly unknown, growing evidence suggests that both apoptotic and non-apoptotic death may occur in PD. Using primary cultures of mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons and the MN9D dopaminergic neuronal cell line, we attempted to evaluate specifically the existence of the mitochondrial(More)
Spinal cord injury (SCI) induces massive cell death, leading to permanent neurological disability. No satisfactory treatment is currently available. Ghrelin, a gastric hormone, is known to stimulate GH release from the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. Here, we report that ghrelin administration improves functional recovery after SCI in part by inhibiting(More)
Acupuncture (AP) is currently used worldwide to relieve pain. However, little is known about its mechanisms of action. We found that after spinal cord injury (SCI), AP inhibited the production of superoxide anion (O(2)·), which acted as a modulator for microglial activation, and the analgesic effect of AP was attributed to its anti-microglial activating(More)
We previously reported that arctigenin, a lignan isolated from the bark of Torreya nucifera, showed significant neuroprotective activity against glutamate-induced toxicity in primary cultured rat cortical cells. In this study, the mode of action of arctigenin was investigated using primary cultures of rat cortical cells as an in vitro system. Arctigenin(More)
A delayed oligodendrocyte cell death after spinal cord injury (SCI) contributes to chronic demyelination of spared axons, leading to a permanent neurological deficit. Therefore, therapeutic approaches to prevent oligodendrocyte cell death after SCI should be considered. Estrogens are well known to have a broad neuroprotective effect, but the protective(More)
The neuroprotective effect of mitochondrial isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDPm), an enzyme involved in the reduction of NADP(+) to NADPH and the supply of glutathione (GSH) in mitochondria, was examined using SH-SY5Y cells overexpressing IDPm (S1). S1 cells showed higher NADPH and GSH levels than vector transfectant (V) cells and were more resistant to(More)