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Central to innate immunity is the sensing of pathogen-associated molecular patterns by cytosolic and membrane-associated receptors. In particular, DNA is a potent activator of immune responses during infection or tissue damage, and evidence indicates that, in addition to the membrane-associated Toll-like receptor 9, an unidentified cytosolic DNA sensor(s)(More)
The type-I interferon (IFN-alpha/beta) response is critical to immunity against viruses and can be triggered in many cell types by cytosolic detection of viral infection, or in differentiated plasmacytoid dendritic cells by the Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) subfamily, which generates signals via the adaptor MyD88 to elicit robust IFN induction. Using mice(More)
CD4(+) T regulatory cells (T(regs)), which express the Foxp3 transcription factor, play a critical role in the maintenance of immune homeostasis. Here, we show that in mice, T(regs) were most abundant in the colonic mucosa. The spore-forming component of indigenous intestinal microbiota, particularly clusters IV and XIVa of the genus Clostridium, promoted(More)
Manipulation of the gut microbiota holds great promise for the treatment of inflammatory and allergic diseases. Although numerous probiotic microorganisms have been identified, there remains a compelling need to discover organisms that elicit more robust therapeutic responses, are compatible with the host, and can affect a specific arm of the host immune(More)
Robust type-I interferon (IFN-alpha/beta) induction in plasmacytoid dendritic cells, through the activation of Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), constitutes a critical aspect of immunity. It is absolutely dependent on the transcription factor IRF-7, which interacts with and is activated by the adaptor MyD88. How plasmacytoid dendritic cells, but not other cell(More)
Costimulatory signals are required for activation of immune cells, but it is not known whether they contribute to other biological systems. The development and homeostasis of the skeletal system depend on the balance between bone formation and resorption. Receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL) regulates the differentiation of bone-resorbing cells,(More)
The activation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) is central to innate and adaptive immunity. All TLRs use the adaptor MyD88 for signalling, but the mechanisms underlying the MyD88-mediated gene induction programme are as yet not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that the transcription factor IRF-5 is generally involved downstream of the TLR-MyD88(More)
Induction of type I interferons (IFNs) by viruses and other pathogens is crucial for innate immunity, and it is mediated by the activation of pattern-recognition receptors, such as Toll-like receptors and cytosolic receptors such as RIG-I and MDA5. The type I IFN induction is primarily controlled at the gene transcriptional level, wherein a family of(More)
Swift elimination of undesirable cells is an important feature in tumour suppression and immunity. The tumour suppressor p53 and interferon-alpha and -beta (IFN-alpha/beta) are essential for the induction of apoptosis in cancerous cells and in antiviral immune responses, respectively, but little is known about their interrelationship. Here we show that(More)