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Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (3rd edition)
TLDR
There continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes, so it is important to update guidelines for monitoring autophagic activity in different organisms.
PNG1, a Yeast Gene Encoding a Highly Conserved Peptide:N-Glycanase
TLDR
Sequencing of expressed sequence tag clones revealed that Png1p is highly conserved in a wide variety of eukaryotes including mammals, suggesting that the enzyme has an important function.
Inhibition of NGLY1 Inactivates the Transcription Factor Nrf1 and Potentiates Proteasome Inhibitor Cytotoxicity
TLDR
It is shown that the cytosolic enzyme N-glycanase 1 (NGLY1, the human PNGase) is essential for Nrf1 activation in response to proteasome inhibition and represents a new therapeutic approach for cancers that depend on proteasomesome homeostasis.
Crystal structure of mammalian alpha1,6-fucosyltransferase, FUT8.
TLDR
The present findings of FUT8 suggest that the conserved residues in the three conserved regions participate in the Rossmann fold and act as the donor binding site, or in catalysis, thus playing key roles in the fucose-transferring reaction.
N-glycanase NGLY1 regulates mitochondrial homeostasis and inflammation through NRF1
TLDR
It is found that NGLY1-deficient human and mouse cells chronically activate cytosolic nucleic acid–sensing pathways, leading to elevated interferon gene signature and an unexpected therapeutic strategy using pharmacological activators of NRF2 for treating mitochondrial and immune dysregulation.
Lethality of mice bearing a knockout of the Ngly1-gene is partially rescued by the additional deletion of the Engase gene
TLDR
The observations strongly suggest that the Ngly1- or Ngly 1/Engase-deficient mice could serve as a valuable animal model for studies related to the pathogenesis of the NGLY1-deficiency, and that cytoplasmic ENGase represents one of the potential therapeutic targets for this genetic disorder.
Endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidase, an enzyme involved in processing of free oligosaccharides in the cytosol
TLDR
The identification of the gene encoding human cytosolic ENGase, a key enzyme involved in the processing of free oligosaccharides in the cytosol, was reported, suggesting that this enzyme is involved in basic biological processes in eukaryotic cells.
Cytoplasmic peptide:N‐glycanase (PNGase) in eukaryotic cells: occurrence, primary structure, and potential functions
TLDR
The primary structure and potential functions of the cytoplasmic PNGases are reviewed and a mouse homologue of Png1p bound not only to the Rad23 protein, but also to various proteins related to ubiquitin and/or the proteasome through an extended amino‐terminal domain.
Crystal structure of mammalian α1,6-fucosyltransferase, FUT8
TLDR
The present findings of FUT8 suggest that the conserved residues in the three conserved regions participate in the Rossmann fold and act as the donor binding site, or in catalysis, thus playing key roles in the fucose-transferring reaction.
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