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Bacillus subtilis is the best-characterized member of the Gram-positive bacteria. Its genome of 4,214,810 base pairs comprises 4,100 protein-coding genes. Of these protein-coding genes, 53% are represented once, while a quarter of the genome corresponds to several gene families that have been greatly expanded by gene duplication, the largest family(More)
The interactions between fibroblast growth factors (FGF) and their receptors have important roles in mediating mesenchymal-epithelial cell interactions during embryogenesis. In particular, Fgf10 is predicted to function as a regulator of brain, lung and limb development on the basis of its spatiotemporal expression pattern in the developing embryo. To(More)
The metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are key receptors in the modulation of excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. Here we have determined three different crystal structures of the extracellular ligand-binding region of mGluR1--in a complex with glutamate and in two unliganded forms. They all showed disulphide-linked(More)
Although the sex-determining gene Sry has been identified in mammals, no comparable genes have been found in non-mammalian vertebrates. Here, we used recombinant breakpoint analysis to restrict the sex-determining region in medaka fish (Oryzias latipes) to a 530-kilobase (kb) stretch of the Y chromosome. Deletion analysis of the Y chromosome of a congenic(More)
Smooth pursuit and vestibularly induced eye movements interact to maintain the accuracy of eye movements in space (i.e., gaze). To understand the role played by the frontal eye fields in pursuit-vestibular interactions, we examined activity of 110 neurons in the periarcuate areas of head-stabilized Japanese monkeys during pursuit eye movements and passive(More)
To estimate the minimal gene set required to sustain bacterial life in nutritious conditions, we carried out a systematic inactivation of Bacillus subtilis genes. Among approximately 4,100 genes of the organism, only 192 were shown to be indispensable by this or previous work. Another 79 genes were predicted to be essential. The vast majority of essential(More)
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2) is an autosomal dominant, neurodegenerative disorder that affects the cerebellum and other areas of the central nervous system. We have devised a novel strategy, the direct identification of repeat expansion and cloning technique (DIRECT), which allows selective detection of expanded CAG repeats and cloning of the genes(More)
BACKGROUND Brief interruptions of coronary blood flow paradoxically protect the heart from subsequent prolonged ischemia. The basis of such endogenous cardioprotection, known as "ischemic preconditioning," remains uncertain. Pharmacological evidence has implicated ATP-dependent potassium (KATP) channels in the mechanism of preconditioning; however, the(More)
Retinoic acid (RA) is a physiological agent that has a wide range of biological activity and appears to regulate developmental programs of vertebrates. However, little is known about the molecular basis of its metabolism. Here we have identified a novel cytochrome P450 (P450RA) that specifically metabolizes RA. In vitro, P450RA converts all-trans RA into(More)