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BACKGROUND The adjustment of local anesthetic dosage for peripheral nerve block must meet two basic requirements: a drug concentration sufficient to inhibit Na+ channels to the point of impulse failure and a volume of drug sufficient to expose a length of nerve longer than the "critical length" for propagation failure. This study examines the lidocaine(More)
We studied the properties of adaptive gain control in the saccadic system and examined whether the adaptations in the horizontal direction transferred to those in the vertical direction, and vice versa, in 16 normal subjects. Eye movements were measured using search coil system. In the adaptive session, a target moved randomly in amplitude steps of 20(More)
BACKGROUND Long-acting local anesthetics are beneficial for the management of postoperative pain and chronic pain. The authors recently reported that a single injection of N-beta-phenylethyl-lidocaine (tonicaine), a quaternary lidocaine derivative, effectively blocks rat sciatic nerve function four to nine times longer than lidocaine, with a predominance of(More)
INTRODUCTION Interstitial Lung Disease (ILD) is frequently associated with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) as one of extra-articular manifestations. Many studies for Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) allelic association with RA have been reported, but few have been validated in an RA subpopulation with ILD. In this study, we investigated the association of HLA class(More)
While absorption spectra of bird cone visual pigments have been well studied, physiological study of bird cone cells has been less advanced owing to their small sizes. We measured the P-III components of electroretinograms (ERG) from isolated retinas of Japanese quail. We recorded responses to monochromatic flashes of equal photon numbers, and found that(More)
Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an autoinflammatory disease caused by MEditerranean FeVer gene (MEFV) mutations. In Japan, patients with FMF have been previously reported, including a mild or incomplete form. Several factors are presumed to contribute to the variable penetrance and to the phenotypic variability of FMF. We conducted the current study(More)
Structural characterizations of marsupial milk oligosaccharides have been performed in only three species: the tammar wallaby, the red kangaroo and the koala. To clarify the homology and heterogeneity of milk oligosaccharides among marsupials, 21 oligosaccharides of the milk carbohydrate fraction of the common brushtail possum were characterized in this(More)
BACKGROUND Monosodium urate (MSU) has been shown to promote inflammasome activation and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) secretion in monocyte/macrophages, but the cellular pathway and nod-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation in synovial tissues, remain elusive. In this study, we investigated the effects of MSU on synovial(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF) has traditionally been considered to be an autosomal-recessive disease, however, it has been observed that substantial numbers of patients with FMF possess only 1 demonstrable MEFV mutation. The clinical profile of familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) may be influenced by MEFV allelic heterogeneity and other(More)