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Partial acid/enzymatic hydrolysis of the ␤-(1 → 3, 1 → 6)-glucan from the cell walls of the rice blast disease fungus Pyric-ularia oryzae (Magnaporthe grisea) released elicitor-active fragments that induced phytoalexin biosynthesis in suspension cultured rice cells. From the digestion of the glucan by an endo-␤-(1 → 3)-glucanase, one highly elicitor-active(More)
The aim of this study was to examine the effects of oral administration of kampo medical formulas on ocular blood flow (OBF). A crossover protocol was used to randomly administer five grams of yokukansan, tokishakuyakusan (TSS), keishibukuryogan, or hachimijiogan to 13 healthy blinded subjects (mean age: 37.3 ± 12.3 years). The mean blur rate, a(More)
Plant cell walls constitute the bulk of the earth renewable source of energy and are a component in the diet of humans and herbivores. l-Arabinofuranosyl (Araf) residues are a quantifiably important constituent of these walls. Plants use uridine diphosphate (UDP)-l-arabinofuranose (UDP-Araf) to donate Araf residues in the biosynthesis of Araf-containing(More)
Flagellins from Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea race 4 and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci 6605 have been found to be glycosylated. Glycosylation of flagellin is essential for bacterial virulence and is also involved in the determination of host specificity. Flagellin glycans from both pathovars were characterized, and common sites of glycosylation were(More)
Cellulosic biomass is available for the production of biofuel, with saccharification of the cell wall being a key process. We investigated whether alteration of arabinoxylan, a major hemicellulose in monocots, causes an increase in saccharification efficiency. Arabinoxylans have β-1,4-D-xylopyranosyl backbones and 1,3- or 1,4-α-l-arabinofuranosyl residues(More)
Previously we revealed that flagellin proteins in Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci 6605 (Pta 6605) were glycosylated with a trisaccharide, modified viosamine (mVio)-rhamnose-rhamnose and that glycosylation was required for virulence. We further identified some glycosylation-related genes, including vioA, vioB, vioT, fgt1, and fgt2. In this study, we newly(More)
Arabinofuranosyltransferase activity was identified in Golgi membranes obtained from mung bean (Vigna radiata) hypocotyls. The enzyme transfers the arabinofuranosyl (Araf) residue from UDP-beta-L-arabinofuranose to exogenous (1, 5)-linked alpha-L-arabino-oligosaccharides labeled at their reducing ends with 2-aminobenzamide. The transferred residue was(More)
Glycosylation of flagellin is known to be involved in filament stabilization, motility, and virulence in Pseudomonas syringae. Here we investigated flagellin glycosylation in other phytopathogenic bacteria. Analyses of deduced amino acid sequences, glycostaining, and molecular masses of purified flagellins revealed that flagellins from all phytopathogenic(More)
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a typical Si-accumulating plant and is able to accumulate Si up to >10 % of shoot dry weight. The cell wall has been reported to become thicker under Si-deficient condition. To clarify the relationship between Si accumulation and cell wall components, the physical properties of, and macromolecular components and Si content in, the(More)
Poststroke patients with functional constipation, assessed by the Rome III criteria, from 6 hospitals were recruited in a study on the effects of the traditional Japanese medicine Daikenchuto (DKT) on constipation. Thirty-four patients (17 men and 17 women; mean age: 78.1 ± 11.6 years) were randomly assigned to 2 groups; all patients received conventional(More)