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5'-Hydroxyaverantin (HAVN) was isolated from a mold, Emericella heterothallica IFO 30842. Aspergillus parasiticus NIAH-26, a UV-irradiated mutant of A. parasiticus SYS-4, produced neither aflatoxins nor precursors in yeast extract-sucrose (YES) medium. When the postmicrosome (cytosol) fraction of NIAH-26, which had been prepared from the culture in YES(More)
Genetic studies of neocortical area patterning are limited, because mice deficient for candidate regulatory genes die before areas emerge and have other complicating issues. To define roles for the homeodomain transcription factor EMX2, we engineered nestin-Emx2 transgenic mice that overexpress Emx2 in cortical progenitors coincident with expression of(More)
A convenient procedure consisting of UV photography (K. Yabe, Y. Ando, M. Ito, and N. Terakado, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 53:230-234, 1987) and a tip culture method has been devised for the isolation and characterization of Aspergillus parasiticus mutants relating to aflatoxin production. With the latter procedure, the production of aflatoxins excreted into(More)
Dichlorvos treatment of aflatoxigenic Aspergillus parasiticus SYS-4 (NRRL 2999) or a verscolorin A-accumulating mutant, NIAH-9, resulted in accumulation of versiconol acetate (VOAc) and versiconal hemiacetal acetate (VHA), whereas the production of aflatoxins, versicolorin A (VA), and versiconol (VOH) decreased. In feeding experiments using another(More)
Cortical GABAergic interneurons (INs) are generated in the medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) and migrate tangentially into cortex. Because most, if not all, migrating MGE-derived INs express the neuregulin (NRG) receptor, ErbB4, we investigated influences of Nrg1 isoforms and Nrg3 on IN migration through ventral telencephalon (vTel) and within cortex. During(More)
We detected biosynthetic activity for aflatoxins G(1) and G(2) in cell extracts of Aspergillus parasiticus NIAH-26. We found that in the presence of NADPH, aflatoxins G(1) and G(2) were produced from O-methylsterigmatocystin and dihydro-O-methylsterigmatocystin, respectively. No G-group aflatoxins were produced from aflatoxin B(1), aflatoxin B(2),(More)
The reeler gene (Reln(rl), formerly rl) product Reelin controls neuronal migration and positioning and thereby plays a key role in brain development. Mutation of Reln leads to widespread disruption of laminar cortical regions and ectopia in some brainstem nuclei. In the embryonic striatum of normal mice, a substantial expression of reelin mRNA has been(More)
The substances belonging to the sterigmatocystin group bear a close structural relationship to aflatoxins. When demethylsterigmatocystin (DMST) was fed to Aspergillus parasiticus NIAH-26, which endogenously produces neither aflatoxins nor precursors in YES medium, aflatoxins B1 and G1 were produced. When dihydrodemethylsterigmatocystin (DHDMST) was fed to(More)
OBJECTIVE The planning of retrosigmoid craniotomies often relies on anatomic landmarks on the posterolateral surface of the cranium, such as the asterion. However, the location of the asterion is not fixed with respect to the underlying transverse-sigmoid sinus complex. We introduce a simple procedure that uses 3-dimensional (3D) computed tomographic(More)
Twenty-eight mycotoxins were studied in the hepatocyte primary culture/DNA repair test using rat and mouse hepatocytes. DNA repair synthesis was elicited by several compounds of unknown carcinogenicity, 5,6- dimethoxysterigmatocystin , versicolorins A and B, averufin , xanthomegnin , luteosporin , and chrysazin , as well as by the carcinogenic myocotoxins ,(More)