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To design hybrid tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) applicable to systemic anti-tumour therapeutic use, we assessed the relationships among the molecular size of hybrid TNF-alpha, in vitro bioactivity and in vivo anti-tumour potency. Natural human TNF-alpha was covalently modified with polyethylene glycol (PEG) of various number-average molecular(More)
This study was conducted to increase the anti-tumour potency and reduce the toxic side-effects of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). Natural human TNF-alpha was chemically conjugated with monomethoxy polyethylene glycol (PEG) using succinimidyl coupling of lysine amino groups of TNF-alpha. The number-average molecular weight of PEG-modified TNF-alpha(More)
Conditioned medium prepared from mouse melanoma B16 cells (B16-CM) increases the macromolecular permeability of bovine aortic, venous and human umbilical vein endothelial monolayer. Collagen, which is synthesised by endothelial cells, has an important function in regulating the permeability of endothelial monolayer. Briefly, low collagen content leads to(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) loaded with tumour antigens have been successfully used to induce protective tumour immunity in murine models and human trials. However, it is still unclear which DC administration route elicits a superior therapeutic effect. Herein, we investigated the vaccine efficiency of DC2.4 cells, a murine dendritic cell line, pulsed with(More)
Immune cells, such as cytotoxic T lymphocytes, natural killer cells, B cells, and dendritic cells, have a central role in cancer immunotherapy. Conventional studies of cancer immunotherapy have focused mainly on the search for an efficient means to prime/activate tumor-associated antigen-specific immunity. A systematic understanding of the molecular basis(More)
Previously we reported that fusogenic liposomes, prepared by fusing simple liposomes with Sendai virus particles, could introduce their contents directly and efficiently into the cytoplasm. In this study, we examined the anti-tumour activity of fusogenic liposomes containing fragment A of diphtheria toxin (DTA). Fusogenic liposomes containing DTA showed(More)
We attempted to determine whether or not activation of calcium phospholipid-dependent protein kinase C (PKC) is associated with the induction of differentiation by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in the human T-lymphoblastic cell line MOLT-3. PKC activities were assayed in MOLT-3 and its five subclones resistant to TPA-induced cell(More)
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