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Phenserine, a phenylcarbamate of physostigmine, is a new potent and highly selective acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor, with a > 50-fold activity versus butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), in clinical trials for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Compared to physostigmine and tacrine, it is less toxic and robustly enhances cognition in animal models.(More)
Current evidence suggests that Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a multi-factorial disease that starts with accumulation of multiple proteins. We have previously proposed that inhibition of γ-secretase may impair membrane recycling causing neurodegeneration starting at synapses (Sambamurti K., Suram A., Venugopal C., Prakasam A., Zhou Y., Lahiri D. K. and Greig(More)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by cerebrovascular deposition of the amyloid beta-peptide (A beta), which is derived from a larger beta-amyloid precursor protein (beta APP). Altered metabolism of beta APP, resulting in increased A beta production, appears central in the neuropathology of AD. The processing of the holoprotein beta APP by different(More)
Rickettsia felis (Alphaproteobacteria: Rickettsiales) is the causative agent of an emerging flea-borne rickettsiosis with worldwide occurrence. Originally described from the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis, recent reports have identified R. felis from other flea species, as well as other insects and ticks. This diverse host range for R. felis may indicate(More)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder of the elderly, characterised by widespread loss of central cholinergic function. The only symptomatic treatment proven effective to date is the use of cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitors to augment surviving cholinergic activity. ChE inhibitors act on the enzymes that hydrolyse acetylcholine(More)
Like acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inactivates the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) and is hence a viable therapeutic target in Alzheimer's disease, which is characterized by a cholinergic deficit. Potent, reversible, and brain-targeted BChE inhibitors (cymserine analogs) were developed based on binding domain structures to help(More)
Four novel analogues (8-11) of cymserine (2) were synthesized by methods similar to those recently developed for the total syntheses of N8-norphenserine (Yu, Q. S.; et al. J. Med. Chem. 1997, 40, 2895-2901) and N1,N8-bisnorphenserine (Yu, Q. S.; et al. J. Med. Chem. 1998, 41, 2371-2379). As our structure-activity studies predicted, these compounds are(More)
OBJECTIVE Microglial activation has been implicated in many neurological disorders for its inflammatory and neurotrophic effects. In this study, we investigated the pharmaceutical properties of 6,6'-bieckol on the regulation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation responsible to the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase(More)
Abnormal deposition and accumulation of Alzheimer's amyloid beta-protein (A beta) and degeneration of forebrain cholinergic neurons are among the principal features of Alzheimer's disease. Studies in rat model systems have shown that forebrain cholinergic deficits are accompanied by induction of cortical beta-amyloid precursor protein (beta-APP) mRNAs and(More)
The reduction in levels of the potentially toxic amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta) has emerged as one of the most important therapeutic goals in Alzheimer's disease. Key targets for this goal are factors that affect the expression and processing of the Abeta precursor protein (betaAPP). Earlier reports from our laboratory have shown that a novel cholinesterase(More)