Tadakazu Hisamatsu

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BACKGROUND A novel T helper (Th) cell lineage, Th17, that exclusively produces the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin 17 (IL17) has been reported to play important roles in various inflammatory diseases. IL23 is also focused upon for its potential to promote Th17. Here, the roles of the IL23/IL17 axis in inflammatory bowel diseases such as ulcerative(More)
Intestinal macrophages play a central role in regulation of immune responses against commensal bacteria. In general, intestinal macrophages lack the expression of innate-immune receptor CD14 and do not produce proinflammatory cytokines against commensal bacteria. In this study, we identified what we believe to be a unique macrophage subset in human(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Mutations in the CARD15/NOD2 gene, a putative intracellular pattern recognition receptor, have been linked to the risk for Crohn's disease. Because intestinal epithelial cells play a role as the barrier to luminal microorganisms, we investigated the expression and function of CARD15/NOD2 in intestinal epithelial cells. METHODS Expression(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Mucosal natural killer (NK) cells that produce interleukin (IL)-22 mediate intestinal homeostasis and inflammation in mice. However, their role in the pathogenesis of human inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) is not known. We investigated intestinal NK cells in intestinal mucosa samples of patients with Crohn's disease (CD). METHODS We(More)
Nucleotide oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2) functions as a mammalian cytosolic pathogen recognition molecule, and variants have been associated with risk for Crohn disease. We recently demonstrated that NOD2 functions as an anti-bacterial factor limiting survival of intracellular invasive bacteria. To gain further insight into the mechanism of NOD2(More)
Although some intestinal epithelial cell lines are known to respond to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), understanding of the relationship between LPS responsiveness and the expression of LPS receptors or factors regulating LPS responsiveness of intestinal epithelial cell lines is incomplete. In this study, we demonstrate that commonly studied human intestinal(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Elemental diet (ED) is effective for human Crohn's disease (CD). Although some of this effectiveness may be due to its low antigenic load and low fat content, the mechanisms remain unclear. We sought to assess the role of histidine, one of the constituent amino acids of ED, in controlling colitis. METHODS The interleukin(More)
BACKGROUND Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-like protein 1A (TL1A) is a member of the TNF superfamily and contributes to the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD) by stimulating T-helper (Th) 1 cells. In addition to Th1, recent studies have focused on the role of Th17 cells in the pathogenesis of CD. Here we tried to clarify the role of TL1A in Th1 and Th17(More)
BACKGROUND Vitamin A is an important regulator of the human immune system, especially in the gut. Recent studies have revealed that retinoic acid (RA) in gut-associated dendritic cells (DCs) enhances the transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta-dependent conversion of naïve T cells into regulatory T (Treg) cells. Thus, RA produced by DCs contributes to immune(More)
The hypothesis of helper T (T(h))1/T(h)2 cytokine balance proposed by Mosmann and Coffman is often invoked to explain the development of inflammatory diseases, including inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Recently, however, a newly identified class of T(h) cells-T(h)17 cells, which produce T(h)17 family cytokines-has been recognized as an essential(More)