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Norepinephrine has powerful and diverse modulatory effects on hypoglossal (XII) motoneuron activity, which is important in maintaining airway patency. The objective was to test two hypotheses that alpha2-adrenoceptor-mediated, presynaptic inhibition of glutamatergic inspiratory drive (Selvaratnam SR, Parkis MA, and Funk GD. Brain Res 805: 104-115, 1998) and(More)
Motoneurons of the compact division of the nucleus ambiguus (cNA) are the final output neurons of the swallowing pattern generator. Thus, their normal function is critical to neonatal survival. To explore the role of purinergic signaling in modulating the excitability of these motoneurons during development, immunohistochemical and whole-cell recording(More)
Elucidation of the neuronal mechanisms underlying respiratory rhythmogenesis is a major focal point in respiratory physiology. An area of the ventrolateral medulla, the pre-Bötzinger complex (preBotC), is a critical site. Attention is now focused on understanding the cellular and network properties within the preBotC that underlie this critical function.(More)
Although Substance P (SP) acts primarily through neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptors to increase the excitability of virtually all motoneurons (MNs) tested, the ontogeny of this transmitter system is not known for any MN pool. Hypoglossal (XII) MNs innervate tongue protruder muscles and participate in several behaviors that must be functional from birth including(More)
PURPOSE Corneal ulcer results from excessive collagen degradation in the corneal stroma. Interleukin (IL)-1 promotes this process by activating signaling molecules that include nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB and stimulating the synthesis of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in corneal fibroblasts. NF-kappaB activation is mediated by phosphorylation of the(More)
PURPOSE The synthesis of chemokines and adhesion molecules by corneal fibroblasts contributes to the development of corneal lesions in severe ocular allergy. The effects of the antiallergy drug tranilast on the expression of such molecules were examined in human corneal fibroblasts. METHODS The release of chemokines into culture supernatants and the(More)
Previous studies analysed the temporal changes of occlusal vertical dimension (OVD) with natural molar tooth contacts in bite-raised guinea pigs and found that the OVD is strictly maintained in the growing guinea pigs. Since the OVD is considered to be the influencing factor for performing mastication, we hypothesised that a control of the OVD is integrated(More)
Previous studies have investigated the effects of increasing the occlusal vertical dimension (OVD) with an oral appliance on masticatory muscle EMG activity during oral behaviours in humans and animals. The present study investigated whether a short-term and reversible increase in OVD, followed by a reduction in OVD to the normal level, resulted in a(More)
Despite the enormous diversity of glutamate (Glu) receptors and advances in understanding recombinant receptors, native Glu receptors underlying functionally identified inputs in active systems are poorly defined in comparison. In the present study we use UBP-302, which antagonizes GluR5 subunit-containing kainate (KA) receptors at < or = 10 microm, but(More)
Repetitive electrical stimulation to the cortical masticatory areas (CMA) evokes rhythmical jaw movements (RJM), whose patterns vary depending on the stimulation site, in various species. In guinea pigs, although alternating bilateral jaw movements are usually seen during natural chewing, it is still unclear which cortical areas are responsible for(More)