Tadafumi Adachi

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Norepinephrine has powerful and diverse modulatory effects on hypoglossal (XII) motoneuron activity, which is important in maintaining airway patency. The objective was to test two hypotheses that alpha2-adrenoceptor-mediated, presynaptic inhibition of glutamatergic inspiratory drive (Selvaratnam SR, Parkis MA, and Funk GD. Brain Res 805: 104-115, 1998) and(More)
Motoneurons of the compact division of the nucleus ambiguus (cNA) are the final output neurons of the swallowing pattern generator. Thus, their normal function is critical to neonatal survival. To explore the role of purinergic signaling in modulating the excitability of these motoneurons during development, immunohistochemical and whole-cell recording(More)
The effects of i.v. administration of a nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor, L-NG-nitroarginine (L-NOArg), on the increase in cerebral cortical blood flow (cortical BF), following either electrical stimulation of the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM), whose cholinergic fibers project to the cortex, or hypercapnia with 10% CO2 inhalation, were studied in(More)
The effect of noxious or innocuous mechanical stimulation of cutaneous areas (face, forelimb and paw, back, hindlimb and paw) on cerebral blood flow in cortex was examined with laser Doppler flowmetry in anesthetized rats. Pinching of the face, forepaw and hindpaw for 15 s produced significant increases of systemic blood pressure and of cortical blood flow,(More)
The effects of focal electrical stimulation of the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM) and hypercapnia on diameter of the pial artery and regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the parietal cortex were examined in urethane-anesthetized rats. The diameter of pial artery was measured using the video microscope and cortical CBF was measured using the laser Doppler(More)
Elucidation of the neuronal mechanisms underlying respiratory rhythmogenesis is a major focal point in respiratory physiology. An area of the ventrolateral medulla, the pre-Bötzinger complex (preBotC), is a critical site. Attention is now focused on understanding the cellular and network properties within the preBotC that underlie this critical function.(More)
Although Substance P (SP) acts primarily through neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptors to increase the excitability of virtually all motoneurons (MNs) tested, the ontogeny of this transmitter system is not known for any MN pool. Hypoglossal (XII) MNs innervate tongue protruder muscles and participate in several behaviors that must be functional from birth including(More)
The effect of a focal stimulation of the magnocellular nucleus of the basal forebrain at two different areas, the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM) and the substantia innominata (SI), on local cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the frontal, parietal and occipital cortices was examined in urethane-anesthetized rats. The stimulation, either electrically or(More)
In adaptive bone remodeling, mechanical signals such as stress/strain caused by loading/deformation are believed to play important roles as regulators of the process in which osteoclastic resorption and osteoblastic formation are coordinated under a local mechanical environment. The mechanism by which cells sense and transduce mechanical signals to the(More)
The effects of morphine on the reflex discharges in sympathetic efferents recorded from branches of the inferior cardiac nerve (ICN) were studied in rats anesthetized with alpha-chloralose and urethane. Somatocardiac sympathetic A- and C-reflexes were elicited by single shock electrical stimulation of myelinated (A) and unmyelinated (C) afferent fibers of(More)