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In the mammalian spinal cord, Renshaw cells (RCs) are excited by axon collaterals of motoneurons (MNs), and in turn, provide recurrent inhibition of MNs. They are considered an important element in controlling the motor output. However, how RCs are modulated by spinal circuits during motor behaviors remains unclear. In this study, the physiological nature(More)
Brainstem hypoperfusion is a major excitant of sympathetic activity triggering hypertension, but the exact mechanisms involved remain incompletely understood. A major source of excitatory drive to preganglionic sympathetic neurons originates from the ongoing activity of premotor neurons in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM sympathetic premotor(More)
1. This study investigated a local effect of cooling on the plantar skin blood flow (PSBF) of tetrodotoxin-treated rats by laser-Doppler flowmetry. 2. When the air temperature around the left foot was locally cooled from 25 to 10 degrees C, the PSBF of the left foot decreased. 3. The response was inhibited by the alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist phentolamine,(More)
To determine whether differential sympathetic nerve responses to hypoxia are explained by opposing effects of hypoxia upon sympathetic premotor neurons in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), the cardiac sympathetic nerve and the renal sympathetic nerve were recorded in anesthetized and vagotomized rabbits. Renal sympathetic nerve was activated by the(More)
BACKGROUND Drinking well water contaminated with the organoarsenic compound diphenylarsinic acid (DPAA) causes central nervous system (CNS) disorders that improve within several years after last drinking such water. Subjective symptoms such as lightheadedness and dizziness appear to persist, however, suggesting CNS damage. We evaluated CNS damage due to(More)
BACKGROUND No studies to date have attempted to evaluate frontotemporal lobar degeneration from the perspective of the vestibular system. OBJECTIVE The present study examined vestibular function in patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) clinical syndrome and evaluated whether vestibular disorders are involved in the clinical symptoms due to FTD. (More)
BACKGROUND Falls and fractures due to impaired balance in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) have an adverse effect on the clinical course of the disease. OBJECTIVE To evaluate balance impairment in AD from the viewpoint of vestibular functional impairment. METHODS The subjects were 12 patients with AD, 12 dementia-free elderly adults, and 12(More)
The paramedian tract (PMT) neurons, a group of neurons associated with eye movement that project into the cerebellar flocculus, are present in or near the medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF) in the paramedian region of the lower brainstem. A 66-year-old man with multiple sclerosis in whom downbeat nystagmus appeared along with right MLF syndrome due to a(More)
Cell groups of the paramedian tract, which are located in the paramedian region of the lower brainstem, are eye-movement-related neurons that project to the cerebellar flocculus. Their inactivation produces downbeat nystagmus, which resembles eye movement disorders resulting from lesions of the cerebellar flocculus in animal experiments. Therefore,(More)
Salivary gland function is regulated by both the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. Previously we showed that the basal sympathetic outflow to the salivary glands (SNA(SG)) was higher in hypertensive compared to normotensive rats and that diabetes reduced SNA(SG) discharge at both strains. In the present study we sought to investigate how(More)