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In the mammalian spinal cord, Renshaw cells (RCs) are excited by axon collaterals of motoneurons (MNs), and in turn, provide recurrent inhibition of MNs. They are considered an important element in controlling the motor output. However, how RCs are modulated by spinal circuits during motor behaviors remains unclear. In this study, the physiological nature(More)
The paramedian tract (PMT) neurons, a group of neurons associated with eye movement that project into the cerebellar flocculus, are present in or near the medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF) in the paramedian region of the lower brainstem. A 66-year-old man with multiple sclerosis in whom downbeat nystagmus appeared along with right MLF syndrome due to a(More)
Cell groups of the paramedian tract, which are located in the paramedian region of the lower brainstem, are eye-movement-related neurons that project to the cerebellar flocculus. Their inactivation produces downbeat nystagmus, which resembles eye movement disorders resulting from lesions of the cerebellar flocculus in animal experiments. Therefore,(More)
Salivary gland function is regulated by both the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. Previously we showed that the basal sympathetic outflow to the salivary glands (SNA(SG)) was higher in hypertensive compared to normotensive rats and that diabetes reduced SNA(SG) discharge at both strains. In the present study we sought to investigate how(More)
We report a 74-year-old woman who presented with recurrent isolated abducens nerve paresis. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging revealed that the right abducens nerve was sandwiched between the right internal carotid artery and a persistent trigeminal artery (PTA) variant, which might have led to neurovascular compression of the abducens nerve, resulting in(More)
Brainstem hypoperfusion is a major excitant of sympathetic activity triggering hypertension, but the exact mechanisms involved remain incompletely understood. A major source of excitatory drive to preganglionic sympathetic neurons originates from the ongoing activity of premotor neurons in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM sympathetic premotor(More)
To determine whether differential sympathetic nerve responses to hypoxia are explained by opposing effects of hypoxia upon sympathetic premotor neurons in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), the cardiac sympathetic nerve and the renal sympathetic nerve were recorded in anesthetized and vagotomized rabbits. Renal sympathetic nerve was activated by the(More)
1. This study investigated a local effect of cooling on the plantar skin blood flow (PSBF) of tetrodotoxin-treated rats by laser-Doppler flowmetry. 2. When the air temperature around the left foot was locally cooled from 25 to 10 degrees C, the PSBF of the left foot decreased. 3. The response was inhibited by the alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist phentolamine,(More)
Neurons in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM neurons) receive inputs from various sources, including baroreceptors, and then regulate activity of sympathetic preganglionic neurons. Though RVLM neurons are assumed to mediate the viscero-sympathetic reflex, it has not been clarified yet. Here we give a brief overview of the participation of RVLM neurons(More)
Neurons in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) receive inputs from various sources, including baroreceptors, and then regulate the activity of sympathetic preganglionic neurons in the spinal cord. Whether RVLM neurons mediate the viscerosympathetic reflex has yet to be clarified. In the present study, we investigated the role of RVLM neurons in the(More)