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Live imaging of the actin cytoskeleton is crucial for the study of many fundamental biological processes, but current approaches to visualize actin have several limitations. Here we describe Lifeact, a 17-amino-acid peptide, which stained filamentous actin (F-actin) structures in eukaryotic cells and tissues. Lifeact did not interfere with actin dynamics in(More)
Filamins are elongated homodimeric proteins that crosslink F-actin. Each monomer chain of filamin comprises an actin-binding domain, and a rod segment consisting of six (Dictyostelium filamin) up to 24 (human filamin) highly homologous repeats of approximately 96 amino acid residues, which adopt an immunoglobulin-like fold. Two hinges in the rod segment,(More)
Binding proteins for insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) IGF-I and IGF-II, known as IGFBPs, control the distribution, function and activity of IGFs in various cell tissues and body fluids. Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-5 (IGFBP-5) is known to modulate the stimulatory effects of IGFs and is the major IGF-binding protein in bone tissue. We have(More)
Much effort has been dedicated to the design of significantly red shifted variants of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) from Aequoria victora (av). These approaches have been based on classical engineering with the 20 canonical amino acids. We report here an expansion of these efforts by incorporation of an amino substituted variant of tryptophan into the(More)
Insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins (IGFBPs) control bioavailability, activity, and distribution of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)1 and -2 through high-affinity IGFBP/IGF complexes. IGF-binding sites are found on N- and C-terminal fragments of IGFBPs, the two conserved domains of IGFBPs. The relative contributions of these domains to IGFBP/IGF(More)
Melanoma inhibitory activity (MIA) has been identified as a small protein secreted from malignant melanoma cells. Recent results revealed a direct interaction of MIA and epitopes within extracellular matrix proteins including fibronectin. The aim of this study was to analyze functional consequences mediated by this interaction. Here we show that MIA(More)
Intensive anticancer drug discovery efforts have been made to develop small molecule inhibitors of the p53-MDM2 and p53-MDMX interactions. We present here the structures of the most potent inhibitors bound to MDM2 and MDMX that are based on the new imidazo-indole scaffold. In addition, the structure of the recently reported spiro-oxindole inhibitor bound to(More)
MOTIVATION Obtaining soluble proteins in sufficient concentrations is a recurring limiting factor in various experimental studies. Solubility is an individual trait of proteins which, under a given set of experimental conditions, is determined by their amino acid sequence. Accurate theoretical prediction of solubility from sequence is instrumental for(More)
Dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHDPS) catalyzes the condensation of pyruvate with L-aspartate beta-semialdehyde. It is the first enzyme unique to the diaminopimelate pathway of lysine biosynthesis. Here we present the crystal structures of five complexes of Escherichia coli DHDPS with substrates, substrate analogs, and inhibitors. These include the complexes(More)
Human macrophage migration inhibitory factor is a 114 amino acid protein that belongs to the family of immunologic cytokines. Assignments of 1H, 15N, and 13C resonances have enabled the determination of the secondary structure of the protein, which consists of two alpha-helices (residues 18-31 and 89-72) and a central four-stranded beta-sheet. In the(More)