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The hemoglobinopathies, disorders of hemoglobin structure and production, protect against death from malaria. In sub-Saharan Africa, two such conditions occur at particularly high frequencies: presence of the structural variant hemoglobin S and alpha(+)-thalassemia, a condition characterized by reduced production of the normal alpha-globin component of(More)
BACKGROUND The gene for sickle hemoglobin (HbS) is a prime example of natural selection. It is generally believed that its current prevalence in many tropical populations reflects selection for the carrier form (sickle cell trait [HbAS]) through a survival advantage against death from malaria. Nevertheless, >50 years after this hypothesis was first(More)
BACKGROUND Malaria resistance by the sickle cell trait (genotype HbAS) has served as the prime example of genetic selection for over half a century. Nevertheless, the mechanism of this resistance remains the subject of considerable debate. While it probably involves innate factors such as the reduced ability of Plasmodium falciparum parasites to grow and(More)
BACKGROUND While many individual genes have been identified that confer protection against malaria, the overall impact of host genetics on malarial risk remains unknown. METHODS AND FINDINGS We have used pedigree-based genetic variance component analysis to determine the relative contributions of genetic and other factors to the variability in incidence(More)
BACKGROUND Haptoglobin (Hp) genotype determines the efficiency of hemoglobin clearance after malaria-induced hemolysis and alters antioxidant and immune functions. The Hp2 allele is thought to have spread under strong selection pressure, but it is unclear whether this is due to protection from malaria or other diseases. METHODS We monitored the incidence(More)
Funding: This study received financial support from the Wellcome Trust. TNW and KM are supported by the Wellcome Trust. DJW is supported through a grant from the Leverhulme Trust. Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. þ-thalassaemia on the incidence of malaria and other diseases in children living on the coast of(More)
Individuals living in areas where malaria is endemic are repeatedly exposed to many different malaria parasite antigens. Studies on naturally acquired antibody-mediated immunity to clinical malaria have largely focused on the presence of responses to individual antigens and their associations with decreased morbidity. We hypothesized that the breadth(More)
BACKGROUND Clear case definitions of malaria are an essential means of evaluating the effectiveness of present and proposed interventions in malaria. The clinical signs of malaria are nonspecific, and parasitemia accompanied by a fever may not be sufficient to define an episode of clinical malaria in endemic areas. We defined and quantified cases of malaria(More)
BACKGROUND Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, malnutrition, and invasive bacterial infection (IBI) are reported among children with severe malaria. However, it is unclear whether their cooccurrence with falciparum parasitization and severe disease happens by chance or by association among children in areas where malaria is endemic. METHODS We(More)
In the tropics, helminths are among the most common chronic infections of humans and Plasmodium infections the most deadly. As these two groups of parasites have similar geographical distributions, co-infection is commonplace. It has increasingly been speculated that helminth infections may alter susceptibility to clinical malaria, and there is now(More)