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The large virus family Paramyxoviridae includes some of the most significant human and livestock viruses, such as measles-, distemper-, mumps-, parainfluenza-, Newcastle disease-, respiratory syncytial virus and metapneumoviruses. Here we identify an estimated 66 new paramyxoviruses in a worldwide sample of 119 bat and rodent species (9,278 individuals).(More)
We present a rigorously validated and highly sensitive confirmatory real-time RT-PCR assay (1A assay) that can be used in combination with the previously reported upE assay. Two additional RT-PCR assays for sequencing are described, targeting the RdRp gene (RdRpSeq assay) and N gene (NSeq assay), where an insertion/deletion polymorphism might exist among(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is among the most relevant causes of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Research is complicated by a lack of accessible small animal models. The systematic investigation of viruses of small mammals could guide efforts to establish such models, while providing insight into viral evolutionary biology. We have assembled the(More)
BACKGROUND The Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronavirus causes isolated cases and outbreaks of severe respiratory disease. Essential features of the natural history of disease are poorly understood. METHODS We studied 37 adult patients infected with MERS coronavirus for viral load in the lower and upper respiratory tracts (LRT and URT,(More)
Biological factors that influence the host range and spillover of Ebola virus (EBOV) and other filoviruses remain enigmatic. While filoviruses infect diverse mammalian cell lines, we report that cells from African straw-colored fruit bats (Eidolon helvum) are refractory to EBOV infection. This could be explained by a single amino acid change in the(More)
The hepatitis B virus (HBV), family Hepadnaviridae, is one of most relevant human pathogens. HBV origins are enigmatic, and no zoonotic reservoirs are known. Here, we screened 3,080 specimens from 54 bat species representing 11 bat families for hepadnaviral DNA. Ten specimens (0.3%) from Panama and Gabon yielded unique hepadnaviruses in coancestral relation(More)
A new human coronavirus (hCoV-EMC) has emerged very recently in the Middle East. The clinical presentation resembled that of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) as encountered during the epidemic in 2002/2003. In both cases, acute renal failure was observed in humans. HCoV-EMC is a member of the same virus genus as SARS-CoV but constitutes a sister(More)
Bats (Chiroptera) host major human pathogenic viruses including corona-, paramyxo, rhabdo- and filoviruses. We analyzed six different cell lines from either Yinpterochiroptera (including African flying foxes and a rhinolophid bat) or Yangochiroptera (genera Carollia and Tadarida) for susceptibility to infection by different enveloped RNA viruses. None of(More)
UNLABELLED Bats have been implicated as reservoirs of emerging viruses. Bat species forming large social groups and roosting in proximity to human communities are of particular interest. In this study, we sampled a colony of ca. 350,000 individuals of the straw-colored fruit bat Eidolon helvum in Kumasi, the second largest city of Ghana. A novel rhabdovirus(More)
Recruitment of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) to tissue damages is a promising approach for in situ tissue regeneration. The physiological mechanisms and regulatory processes of MSC trafficking to injured tissue remain poorly understood. However, the pivotal role of chemokines in MSC recruitment has already been shown. The aim of this study was to determine(More)