Ta-Chiang Liu

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BACKGROUND JX-594 is a targeted oncolytic poxvirus designed to selectively replicate in and destroy cancer cells with cell-cycle abnormalities and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-ras pathway activation. Direct oncolysis plus granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) expression also stimulates shutdown of tumour vasculature and(More)
Glioblastoma, the most malignant type of primary brain tumor, is one of the solid cancers where cancer stem cells have been isolated, and studies have suggested resistance of those cells to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Here, we report the establishment of CSC-enriched cultures derived from human glioblastoma specimens. They grew as neurospheres in(More)
It is unclear why disease occurs in only a small proportion of persons carrying common risk alleles of disease susceptibility genes. Here we demonstrate that an interaction between a specific virus infection and a mutation in the Crohn's disease susceptibility gene Atg16L1 induces intestinal pathologies in mice. This virus-plus-susceptibility gene(More)
Therapeutic oncolytic viruses (virotherapeutics) constitute a novel class of targeted anticancer agents that have unique mechanisms of action compared with other cancer therapeutics. The development of virotherapeutics has evolved from the use of in vitro-passaged strains (first generation), to genetically engineered selectivity-enhanced viruses (second(More)
JX-594 is a targeted and granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-expressing oncolytic poxvirus designed to selectively replicate in and destroy cancer cells through viral oncolysis and tumor-specific immunity. In order to study the mechanisms-of-action (MOA) of JX-594 in humans, a mechanistic proof-of-concept clinical trial was performed(More)
To gain insights into the interrelationships among childhood undernutrition, the gut microbiota, and gut mucosal immune/barrier function, we purified bacterial strains targeted by immunoglobulin A (IgA) from the fecal microbiota of two cohorts of Malawian infants and children. IgA responses to several bacterial taxa, including Enterobacteriaceae, correlated(More)
BACKGROUND Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms are rare malignancies for which the ideal staging method remains controversial. Ki-67 is a cell proliferation marker that has been shown to have some utility in predicting prognosis in neuroendocrine neoplasms. We sought to test the predictive ability of Ki-67 staining for disease recurrence and overall(More)
Inflammatory fibroid polyps (IFPs) are rare, benign tumors that can arise throughout the gastrointestinal tract. Although the molecular pathogenesis of these lesions has been well characterized, their morphologic features often vary. We report the clinicopathologic findings of the largest series of IFPs to date. A total of 83 IFPs seen at our institution(More)
Oncolytic herpes simplex viruses (HSV) have emerged as a promising platform for cancer therapy. However, efficacy as single agents has thus far been unsatisfactory. Tumor vasculature is critical in supporting tumor growth, but successful antiangiogenic approaches often require maintaining constant levels of antiangiogenic products. We hypothesized that(More)
A coding polymorphism (Thr300Ala) in the essential autophagy gene, autophagy related 16-like 1 (ATG16L1), confers increased risk for the development of Crohn disease, although the mechanisms by which single disease-associated polymorphisms contribute to pathogenesis have been difficult to dissect given that environmental factors likely influence disease(More)