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Many human monoclonal antibodies that neutralize multiple clades of HIV-1 are polyreactive and bind avidly to mammalian autoantigens. Indeed, the generation of neutralizing antibodies to the 2F5 and 4E10 epitopes of HIV-1 gp41 in man may be proscribed by immune tolerance because mice expressing the V(H) and V(L) regions of 2F5 have a block in B cell(More)
We previously reported that some of the rare broadly reactive, HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies are polyreactive, leading to the hypothesis that induction of these types of neutralizing antibody may be limited by immunologic tolerance. However, the notion that such antibodies are sufficiently autoreactive to trigger B cell tolerance is controversial. To test(More)
The HIV-1 broadly neutralizing Ab (bnAb) 2F5 has been shown to be poly-/self-reactive in vitro, and we previously demonstrated that targeted expression of its VDJ rearrangement alone was sufficient to trigger a profound B cell developmental blockade in 2F5 V(H) knockin (KI) mice, consistent with central deletion of 2F5 H chain-expressing B cells. In this(More)
Successful vaccines (i.e., tetanus and diphtheria) can induce long-lived Ab levels that are maintained by bone marrow plasma cells and plasma Ab levels do not correlate with numbers of blood memory B cells. Destruction of CD4(+) T cells early in HIV-1 acute infection may result in insufficient induction of neutralizing Ab responses; thus, an HIV-1 vaccine(More)
Oil granuloma (OG) induced by intraperitoneal injection of pristane represents a non-infectious granuloma. Oil granuloma has been characterized, but the regulation of its formation still remains unknown. To address this, we injected pristane into various mice deficient for genes including, linker for activation of T cells (LAT), μMT, LTα, TNFα, IL-6. T cell(More)
The membrane proximal external region (MPER) of HIV-1 gp41 has several features that make it an attractive antibody-based vaccine target, but eliciting an effective gp41 MPER-specific protective antibody response remains elusive. One fundamental issue is whether the failure to make gp41 MPER-specific broadly neutralizing antibodies like 2F5 and 4E10 is due(More)
Long-lived humoral immune responses depend upon the generation of memory B cells and long-lived plasma cells during the germinal center (GC) reaction. These memory compartments, characterized by class-switched IgG and high-affinity Abs, are the basis for successful vaccination. We report that a new member of the plexin family of molecules, plexin-D1,(More)
The Aicda gene product, activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), initiates somatic hypermutation, class-switch recombination, and gene conversion of Ig genes by the deamination of deoxycytidine, followed by error-prone mismatch- or base-excision DNA repair. These processes are crucial for the generation of genetically diverse, high affinity antibody and(More)
We have shown that the protective HIV-1 Ab, 2F5, avidly reacts with a conserved mammalian self-Ag, kynureninase, and that the development of B cells specific for the 2F5 epitope is constrained by immunological tolerance. These observations suggest that the capacity to mount Ab responses to the 2F5 epitope is mitigated by tolerance, but such capacity may be(More)
We describe and characterize a stromal cell independent culture system that efficiently supports pro-B cell to IgM+ B cell development with near normal levels of IgH and Igkappa diversity. Pro-B cells present in non-adherent bone marrow cells proliferate in the presence of IL-7 and subsequent to the removal of IL-7 and addition of BAFF, differentiate(More)