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The Galileo probe mass spectrometer determined the composition of the Jovian atmosphere for species with masses between 2 and 150 amu from 0.5 to 21.1 bars. This paper presents the results of analysis of some of the constituents detected: H2, He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, CH4, NH3, H2O, H2S, C2 and C3 nonmethane hydrocarbons, and possibly PH3 and Cl. 4He/H2 in the(More)
The four giant planets in the Solar System have abundances of 'metals' (elements heavier than helium), relative to hydrogen, that are much higher than observed in the Sun. In order to explain this, all models for the formation of these planets rely on an influx of solid planetesimals. It is generally assumed that these planetesimals were similar, if not(More)
The global hydrogen Lyman alpha, helium (584 angstroms), and molecular hydrogen band emissions from Saturn are qualitatively similar to those of Jupiter, but the Saturn observations emphasize that the H(2) band excitation mechanism is closely related to the solar flux. Auroras occur near 80 degrees latitude, suggesting Earth-like magnetotail activity, quite(More)
Combined analysis of helium (584 angstroms) airglow and the atmospheric occultations of the star delta Scorpii imply a vertical mixing parameter in Saturn's upper atmosphere of K (eddy diffusion coefficient) approximately 8 x 10(7) square centimeters per second, an order of magnitude more vigorous than mixing in Jupiter's upper atmosphere. Atmospheric H(2)(More)
Results from the occultation of the sun by Neptune imply a temperature of 750 +/- 150 kelvins in the upper levels of the atmosphere (composed mostly of atomic and molecular hydrogen) and define the distributions of methane, acetylene, and ethane at lower levels. The ultraviolet spectrum of the sunlit atmosphere of Neptune resembles the spectra of the(More)
The deuterium-hydrogen abundance ratio in the Venus atmosphere was measured while the inlets to the Pioneer Venus large probe mass spectrometer were coated with sulfuric acid from Venus' clouds. The ratio is (1.6 +/- 0.2) x 10(-2). The hundredfold enrichment of deuterium means that at least 0.3 percent of a terrestrial ocean was outgassed on Venus, but is(More)
The Galileo Probe Mass Spectrometer provided the first data on the noble gas mixing and isotope ratios in the Jovian atmosphere. These measurements and the comparison with solar values constrain models of Jupiter's formation• Significant refinements to the initially reported abundances of argon, krypton, and xenon have been enabled through post-encounter(More)
The composition of the jovian atmosphere from 0.5 to 21 bars along the descent trajectory was determined by a quadrupole mass spectrometer on the Galileo probe. The mixing ratio of He (helium) to H2 (hydrogen), 0.156, is close to the solar ratio. The abundances of methane, water, argon, neon, and hydrogen sulfide were measured; krypton and xenon were(More)
Observations of the optical extreme ultraviolet spectrum of the Jupiter planetary system during the Voyager 1 encounter have revealed previously undetected physical processes of significant proportions. Bright emission lines of S III, S IV, and O III indicating an electron temperature of 10(5) K have been identified in preliminary analyses of the Io plasma(More)