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Several recent studies have shown that amphibian populations may exhibit high genetic subdivision in areas with recent fragmentation and urban development. Less is known about the potential for genetic differentiation in continuous habitats. We studied genetic differentiation of red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) across a 2-km transect through(More)
Most studies of animal behaviour are based on direct observations of behaviour in a natural or laboratory context. While the potential for observation biases has often been discussed, there have been few quantitative analyses of the kinds of biases that may affect behavioural data. We used multiple observers of aggression and foraging behaviour in(More)
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