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How BCG led to the discovery of immunostimulatory DNA.
- T. Tokunaga, T. Yamamoto, S. Yamamoto
- Biology, MedicineJapanese journal of infectious diseases
- 1 February 1999
The response of higher animals against immunostimulatory DNA must be the most primitive but important mechanism for self-nonself discrimination against foreign DNA by utilizing or controlling this primitive response, it seems possible to offer many beneficial means to human health.
Unique palindromic sequences in synthetic oligonucleotides are required to induce IFN [correction of INF] and augment IFN-mediated [correction of INF] natural killer activity.
- S. Yamamoto, T. Yamamoto, T. Kataoka, E. Kuramoto, O. Yano, T. Tokunaga
- Biology, ChemistryJournal of immunology
- 15 June 1992
The results strongly suggest that the presence of the unique palindromic sequences, such as GACGTC, AGCGCT, and AACGTT, but not ACCGGT, is essential for the immunostimulatory activity of oligonucleotides.
Oligodeoxynucleotides containing palindrome sequences with internal 5'-CpG-3' act directly on human NK and activated T cells to induce IFN-gamma production in vitro.
The results indicate that oligo-DNAs containing CG palindrome act directly on human NK cells and activated T cells to induce IFN-gamma production.
Binding of oligoguanylate to scavenger receptors is required for oligonucleotides to augment NK cell activity and induce IFN.
It is suggested that the binding of an extrapalindromic sequence to the scavenger receptor is required for the immunostimulatory activity of oligo-1, a 30mer single-stranded oligonucleotide with oligoG sequences next to the active palindromo-G sequences.
Ability of oligonucleotides with certain palindromes to induce interferon production and augment natural killer cell activity is associated with their base length.
It is indicated that the immunostimulatory activity of oligonucleotides with certain palindromic sequences requires an oligon nucleotide at least 18 bases long.
Hexamer palindromic oligonucleotides with 5'-CG-3' motif(s) induce production of interferon.
- K. Sonehara, H. Saito, E. Kuramoto, S. Yamamoto, T. Yamamoto, T. Tokunaga
- Biology, ChemistryJournal of interferon & cytokine research : the…
- 1 October 1996
The results strongly suggest that the minimal essential structure required for IFN induction is the hexamer palindromic sequence with CG motif(s), and that oligonucleotides with NACGTN and NTCGAN sequences exhibited the strongest activity.
Oligodeoxyribonucleotides with 5'-ACGT-3' or 5'-TCGA-3' sequence induce production of interferons.
- S. Yamamoto, T. Yamamoto, T. Tokunaga
- Biology, MedicineCurrent topics in microbiology and immunology
Evidence foreshadowing the finding of senseless immunostimulatory DNA was also obtained by the experimental use of BCG.
Separation and characterization of a dipeptidyl aminopeptidase that degrades enkephalins from monkey brain.
Anti-idiotype monoclonal antibody carrying the internal image of ganglioside GM3.
- S. Yamamoto, T. Yamamoto, R. Saxton, D. Hoon, R. Irie
- BiologyJournal of the National Cancer Institute
- 21 November 1990
Because L612 detects and kills melanoma tumor cells in vitro and in vivo in the presence of complement without affecting normal tissues, anti-idiotype monoclonal antibodies carrying the internal image of GM3 may be an effective tool for active specific immunotherapy in patients with melanoma.
Murine monoclonal anti-idiotype antibody (alpha) as a probe to detect human monoclonal antibody bound to human tumor tissues.