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How BCG led to the discovery of immunostimulatory DNA.
TLDR
The response of higher animals against immunostimulatory DNA must be the most primitive but important mechanism for self-nonself discrimination against foreign DNA by utilizing or controlling this primitive response, it seems possible to offer many beneficial means to human health.
Unique palindromic sequences in synthetic oligonucleotides are required to induce IFN [correction of INF] and augment IFN-mediated [correction of INF] natural killer activity.
TLDR
The results strongly suggest that the presence of the unique palindromic sequences, such as GACGTC, AGCGCT, and AACGTT, but not ACCGGT, is essential for the immunostimulatory activity of oligonucleotides.
Oligodeoxynucleotides containing palindrome sequences with internal 5'-CpG-3' act directly on human NK and activated T cells to induce IFN-gamma production in vitro.
TLDR
The results indicate that oligo-DNAs containing CG palindrome act directly on human NK cells and activated T cells to induce IFN-gamma production.
Binding of oligoguanylate to scavenger receptors is required for oligonucleotides to augment NK cell activity and induce IFN.
TLDR
It is suggested that the binding of an extrapalindromic sequence to the scavenger receptor is required for the immunostimulatory activity of oligo-1, a 30mer single-stranded oligonucleotide with oligoG sequences next to the active palindromo-G sequences.
Ability of oligonucleotides with certain palindromes to induce interferon production and augment natural killer cell activity is associated with their base length.
TLDR
It is indicated that the immunostimulatory activity of oligonucleotides with certain palindromic sequences requires an oligon nucleotide at least 18 bases long.
Hexamer palindromic oligonucleotides with 5'-CG-3' motif(s) induce production of interferon.
TLDR
The results strongly suggest that the minimal essential structure required for IFN induction is the hexamer palindromic sequence with CG motif(s), and that oligonucleotides with NACGTN and NTCGAN sequences exhibited the strongest activity.
Oligodeoxyribonucleotides with 5'-ACGT-3' or 5'-TCGA-3' sequence induce production of interferons.
TLDR
Evidence foreshadowing the finding of senseless immunostimulatory DNA was also obtained by the experimental use of BCG.
Anti-idiotype monoclonal antibody carrying the internal image of ganglioside GM3.
TLDR
Because L612 detects and kills melanoma tumor cells in vitro and in vivo in the presence of complement without affecting normal tissues, anti-idiotype monoclonal antibodies carrying the internal image of GM3 may be an effective tool for active specific immunotherapy in patients with melanoma.
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