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Woodpeckers, decay, and the future of cavity-nesting vertebrate communities worldwide
It is shown that avian excavators are the primary cavity producers in North America, but not elsewhere (26% in Eurasia and South America; 0% in Australasia); and similar persistence of cavities created by woodpeckers and those created by decay in Canada, but low persistence of woodpecker-excavated cavities in Poland and Argentina. Expand
Virtual Conservation: How the European Union is Turning a Blind Eye to Its Vanishing Primeval Forests
The Bia lowieża Forest is the last large remaining fragment of primeval deciduous forest of the northern temperate zone in Europe and is home to many species that are rare or extinct elsewhere, including Wisent. Expand
Anti‐predator adaptations in nesting Marsh Tits Parus palustris: the role of nest‐site security
It is concluded that the patterns of nest-site use found in this species are best explained as anti-predator adaptations, which have evolved and are maintained by the pressure of nest predators. Expand
Lessons from long-term hole-nester studies in a primeval temperate forest
It is concluded that in primeval forest conditions, hole-nesting nonexcavator birds are not, as a rule, nest-site-limited. Expand
“Lifespan” of woodpecker-made holes in a primeval temperate forest: A thirty year study
Lifespan of holes varied by tree species, ranging from four (Picea abies) to >22 years (Pinus sylvestris, almost 100% dead), and the long lifespan of holes in the dead Pinus was exceptional, as otherwise, persistence was much lower for holes excavated in dead trees or limbs than for those in living substrates. Expand
On the Origin of Parental Care and the Early Evolution of Male and Female Parental Roles in Birds
It is proposed that biparental care originated then, when parental care was already obligatory and environmental conditions demanded the constant presence of a parent, and the system of care prevailing among living birds was changed. Expand
Nest-sites of hole-nesters in a primaeval temperate forst (Bialowieza National Park, Poland
The study provides the first description of nest-site distribution of European hole-nesters breeding in natural holes in unm anaged stands. T h e da ta are mostly from two types of climax stands,Expand
Microclimate in tree cavities and nest-boxes: implications for hole-nesting birds
It is concluded that providing nest-boxes may affect microclimatic conditions available for cavity-users, which may have ecological implications for nesting birds. Expand
Nestling Food of European Hole-Nesting Passerines: Do We Know Enough to Test the Adaptive Hypotheses on Breeding Seasons?
Direct empirical support for the ‘mismatch’ idea is rather weak, knowledge of nestling diet and its variation is far from adequate and new, properly designed, studies are needed. Expand