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Seasonal affective disorder. A description of the syndrome and preliminary findings with light therapy.
Preliminary studies in 11 patients suggest that extending the photoperiod with bright artificial light has an antidepressant effect and sleep recordings in nine depressed patients confirmed the presence of hypersomnia and showed increased sleep latency and reduced slow-wave (delta) sleep. Expand
Epidemiological findings of seasonal changes in mood and behavior. A telephone survey of Montgomery County, Maryland.
It is apparent from this study that seasonal affective disorder represents the extreme end of the spectrum of seasonality that affects a large percentage of the general population and might provide valuable insight into pathogenesis, treatment, and prevention of affective illness. Expand
Conservation of photoperiod-responsive mechanisms in humans.
Differences persisted during 24-h periods of enforced wakefulness in constant dim light, indicating that prior exposure to the two regimes induced abiding changes in the timing of internal processes, such as circadian pacemaker oscillations, that control the durations of nocturnal and diurnal periods of the rhythms. Expand
Two circadian rhythms in the human electroencephalogram during wakefulness.
It is concluded that the waking EEG undergoes changes that can be attributed to circadian and homeostatic processes and may represent electrophysiological correlates of different aspects of the circadian rhythm in arousal. Expand
Light suppresses melatonin secretion in humans.
Findings establish that the human response to light is qualitatively similar to that of other mammals. Expand
A longer biological night in long sleepers than in short sleepers.
It is concluded that the circadian pacemaker programs a longer biological night in long sleepers than in short sleepers, and it is proposed that individual differences in the circadianpacemaker's program may contribute to the variability of sleep duration in the general population. Expand
A circadian signal of change of season in patients with seasonal affective disorder.
Patients with seasonal affective disorder generate a biological signal of change of season that is absent in healthy volunteers and that is similar to the signal that mammals use to regulate seasonal changes in their behavior, consistent with the hypothesis that neural circuits that mediate the effects of seasonalChanges in day length on mammalian behavior mediate effects of season. Expand
Rapid cycling affective disorder: contributing factors and treatment responses in 51 patients.
For 51 patients with rapid cycling affective disorder, clinical and family history data indicated that the illness was phenotypically and genetically related to more typical forms of affectiveExpand
Sleep reduction as a final common pathway in the genesis of mania.
The sleep reduction model is a parsimonious explanation for the precipitation of manic episodes by a wide variety of factors and provides a conceptual focus and an experimental paradigm for psychological investigations of the causes of mania. Expand
Seasonality and affective illness.
The authors review what has been learned about the causes, symptoms, and treatments of seasonal affective disorder and discuss its relevance to affective illness in general. They point out thatExpand